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Did the Prophet (SAAW) fast on 10th Muharram?


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Author Topic: Did the Prophet (SAAW) fast on 10th Muharram?  (Read 3999 times)
Zeynab
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« on: December 26, 2009, 01:04:51 am »


The practice of fasting on 10th Muharram (Ashura) in the Sunni culture has nothing to do with the tragic results of the battle of Karbala. Instead, it involves a very different story, constructed years after the Prophet's (S) death with a specific motive. The Prophet (S) never observed fast on the 10th of Muharram. It started through one of the unauthentic ahadith written and compiled by Imam al-Bukhari that says:

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) entered Medina in the first year of Hijra and noticed the Jews fasting. He asked one of his companions: “Why are the Jews fasting?”. His companion replied: “The Jews are remembering when Prophet Moses (pbuh) and the children of Israel were saved from the Pharaoh”. The prophet said: “I have a greater right on Moses than what they do. Therefore, my people will fast on Ashura in the same way they are fasting on Ashura”. One of the companions exclaimed: “O Messenger of Allah, but we are going to be copying the Jews” and the prophet then replied: “You are right, from now on we will fast on the 9th and 10th”.  (Al-Bukhari, hadith 1865)

The above hadith claims that the Jews observed this month as sacred and also observed fast during the 10th of Muharram as it coincided with their religious event of Passover. Further it claims that when the Prophet heard of the Jews fasting on 10th Muharram (the Jews were supposed to have said that Moses observed fast on 10th Muharram), the Prophet allegedly also decided to fast.

A careful analysis of historical data with all its facts exposes the manipulation of Bukhari Hadith No.1865 that's responsible for starting the practice of fasting on 10th Muharram. The Jews didn't fast on the 10th of Muharram as Passover never coincided with Muharram. The Jews had their own calendar. They had no reason to fast on the 10th of Muharram - unless it could be proven that this date coincided with some Jewish day of fast during the Medinah period in Islamic history. But there's no evidence of that either.

In accordance with historical findings, during the very ancient days, the Jewish month of Tishri coincided with Muharram once upon a time. But history bluntly indicates that the Arab and Jewish calenders lost their synchronization and parity long before the Prophet (S) migrated to Medinah in 622 CE. The parity was lost before the advent of Islam as the pagan Arabs did not follow any mathematical calculation in their intercalation. That's the reason why Muharram in the second year of Hijrah began on July 5, 623 C.E. (Al-Munjid, 21st ed.), much before the Jewish month of Tishri I (which always coincides with September-October). It was for this reason that neither the Jews nor the Arabs ever discussed anything about the synchronization of their calenders during the Prophet's entire era in Medinah. The day of Ashura had NO significance for the Jews.

Furthermore, according to the Jewish Bible, the month in which the Israelites were freed from the tyranny of Pharaoh was Abib (in Hebrew, which is the same as Rajab in Arabic). The Jewish Bible (Torah) says: "Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the Lord thy God: for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night." (Deut., 16:1). As the Jewish Bible mentions that Passover took place in the month of Abib (or Rajab), how could the Jews transfer that event from Rajab to Muharram in open defiance to their religious scripture? The narrator of this forged hadith obviously overlooked this point. This narrator only knew that once upon a time Muharram coincided with the Jewish month, Tishri, but he was totally unaware of contemporary rules of Jewish religion and culture.

Most importantly, something for Sunni Muslims to reflect upon which they unfortunately ignore for the purpose of defending the contents of this very unauthentic Hadith:   The Prophet (S) was sent by Allah Almighty with a perfected Religion to abrogate all previous religions that were changed and corrupted by the selfish desires of the human mind. Thus, would the Prophet (S) ever decide or agree to imitate the custom of the Jews and order people to fast on that day when the Noble Quran commands to fast ONLY in the month of Ramadan? He would NEVER do that for certain.
 
Syed Saeed Rizvi who has widely researched this issue is of the view that this story was constructed by the Ommayad rulers in collaboration with their political cronies, after the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. It was done for the purpose of portraying the day of Ashura (10th Muharram) as a day of rejoicing to distract the society from the tragic events of the incident in Karbala. Regardless of the long-standing Shiia-Sunni wrangling, it isn't hard to discern that Rizvi's well studied views make plenty of sense. It's a well-known fact that Abu Huraira, who barely knew the Prophet (S), and yet had narrated more ahadith than anyone else, was a close friend of Muawia bin Abu Sufyan, the first Ommayad caliph. It's also an open secret that Abu Huraira constructed tons of forged narrations in the Prophet's name from Muwaia's luxurious palace which he visited regularly. There were others like him too. Their loyalty toward Faith was questionable. Their obvious goal was personal benefit by befriending powerful and influential persons.

The above quoted Hadith on fasting on 10th Muharram is of the same genre as various other forged narrations by the camp followers of the Ommayads which say that it was on the 10th of Muharram that Noah's ark rested on Mount Arafat, the fire became cool for Abraham, and Jesus ascended to the heaven. In the same category came the traditions exhorting the Muslims to treat Ashura as a festive and joyous occasion.

Apart from the Hadith written by Imam Bukhari, and a few other copy-cat versions penned by Muslim bin Hajaj and Imam Tirmizi, there is absolutely no mention (let alone any evidence) in Islamic history that the Prophet (S) nor anyone else observed fast on 10th Muharram.

Indeed, one is perfectly entitled to observe optional fasts on Ashura or during the month of Muharram as a gesture of love and profound respect toward this enormous tragedy.   But so-called traditionalism has introduced this practice on mythical grounds with corrupt intent .. to turn the day of Ashura into a day of rejoicing.

With the commencement of the month of Muharram there are lengthy sermons in our Sunni masjids that babble and babble on this ridiculously false hadith, but not a word on the real incident of Muharram 10, 61 A.H. which is one of the most important episodes in our history with far-reaching consequences.

Briefly and simply put, this hadith is politically motivated. The Jews didn't fast on the 10th of Muharram and the Prophet (S) never observed fast on this day either. The month of Muharram and particularly the 10th of Muharram became significant in history after the martyrdom of Imam Hussain, the grandson of the Prophet, which happened in the year 61 AH (or 680 CE), years after the passing away of the Prophet (S). The Ommayad rulers were eager to downplay the relevance of 10th Muharram as Imam Hussain's martyrdom happened during the period of the second Ommayad ruler, Yazid bin Muawia.



Related posts:

Ashura 10th day.

Battle of Karbala art gallery.


Emergence of Ommayads and destruction of many Islamic values.


Why we Muslims do not celebrate our new year?


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Heba E. Husseyn
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« Reply #1 on: December 27, 2009, 02:33:38 am »

Thank u for this interesting read, sister.  By the way, good wishes for the future to everyone on the occasion of our Islamic new year of 1431.  The Muslim new year began on December 17 of 2009 of the Christian calendar.

Coming back to the topic of sister's post ....

Sunni 'scholar' Yusuf Qaradawi of IslamOnline writes another tale of his own as follows: 

" .. the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to fast on this day even before he emigrated to Madinah. The Arabs before Islam used to fast on that day and glorified it, and it was the day when they used to cover the Ka`bah. In doing so, they were following their predecessors. It is reported from `Ikramah that Quraysh committed a sin in the Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic era) and they regretted it and were sorry, so they were advised to fast that day to expiate their sin."
 
This 'scholar' is trying to say that the Prophet (SAAW) joined the people in the days of Jahilya to follow their custom apparently without knowing the reasons behind that practice, a thing which the Prophet never did nor would he ever do. 
 
Then, to propagate the story of fasting in Medinah on Ashura, Qaradawi jumps on to another explanation to defend the Bukhari hadith:

"When He (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “We are closer to Musa than you are,”, and when he fasted and ordered the Muslims to fast on that day, he was, in fact, affirming the significance of this day and delivering a message to the Jews that Allah’s religion is one at all times. All the Prophets are brothers and each has contributed towards the establishment of the truth."
 
But Qaradawi hasn't mentioned that in the Jewish scripture, the day of fasting (Passover) is in the month of Rajab, so why would they fast in Muharram for that religious event of theirs?  No information cited on this bit.  This tactic is known as 'ulema shuffle' to conveniently hide those issues that can get them caught. 
 
Qaradawi further writes: 

" .. agreement between the Muslims and the Jews in fasting this day occurred in the early days of Muslims in Madinah. The Prophet, in fact, liked to be in line with the People of the Book in non-prohibited matters in pursuit of attracting their hearts and winning them over to his cause." 

But Islamic history contains no evidence of this information.  Indeed the Prophet was keen to make peace with people of other faiths for the purpose of 'live and let live' but he never compromised nor immitated the religious pracices of any other community except what has been commanded in the Quran.  And as you've rightly highlighted, when the Quran explicitly commands us to fast only during Ramadan, it's impossible that the Prophet would add to that command and order the people to fast on 10th Muharram too.  And actually, nowadays, many folks fast on the 9th as well as 10th of this month. 

It's easy enough for our 'scholars' to write such statements which serve as emotional rhetorics in the ears of their naive and gullable followers.  But their words are neither supported by logic nor ethics nor confirmed by any historical data.
 
 


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« Reply #2 on: December 27, 2009, 03:11:55 am »

Thanks sis Heba.  Best wishes to u too on the occasion of the Muslim New Year of 1431.  It's sad that we follow and remember the christian era so well but keep forgetting our own calender.  thanks again for this very useful reminder.

Your comments on Qaradawi's article have been put very well.  'ulema shuffle' are just the right terms to describe so many ongoing tricks of our 'scholars' to fool, puzzle and win the hearts of their over-trusting disciples.  May Allah Almighty rescue this Ummah from the disaster inflicted by its own folks.  Ameen.
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« Reply #3 on: December 27, 2009, 03:34:23 am »

hummmmm .. good read.  Subhan'Allah.  Mr. Bukhari and 'Sir' Huraira's lies caught like a detective catches a couple of thieves  Grin

I don't want to make it a shiia/sunni issue either, but I cannot help observing the sunni lectures on Muharram which  expose the incredible stubbornness and insentivity of sunni imams who perpetually talk & talk of nothing else but the unauthentic political ahadith forged by abu Huraira and they don't mention a word of the only real big significance of Muharram, the martyrdom of Imam Hussein and many of those with him.
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« Reply #4 on: December 08, 2011, 01:49:47 am »

Exactly, the sunni (salafists to be precise) obstinacy is just ridiculous.  It's about time.  They simply need to grow up and reconcile. 
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« Reply #5 on: November 18, 2012, 03:05:32 am »

 salamem.


Jazakallah very good research sister u guys put up in detail it's excellent to read may Allah reward u for ur hard work i too wonder where from this Hadith come up with such claim it's nothing more then suuni innovation. Angry
Yes indeed There is no prescription in the Quran to fast on such a day or for the commemorations of any event.. These are all additional concepts introduced into the name of religion for which the Quran gives no authority but Unfortunately the enemies of Islam have influenced a large proportion of musilms to even celebrate 10th Ashura!!!! It is disgusting and appalling that our prophet ( pbuh) legacy is treated in such a way .there  are prescriptive and conditions in Quran In following verses but these are not obligatory depend on situation which Allah have clearly mention in noble book  if any thing exist anymore Allah would tell us. It's not difficult for Allah  alhamdulillah ! Allah does not need any favour  from mr bukhari to explain sunnah . may hadith specifying on food and barkah of cooking special food on ashura  infect few of fake hadiths says ! one who take shower on ashura  will never get sick ? what nonsense all of them false and baseless hadiths prophet (pbuh) did not said any thing like that , perphet pbuh did not fast on ashura such statements are neither commands by Allah nor conformed from Quran .


Verses regarding  fasts !!!


Perform the pilgrimage and the visit (to Makka) for Allah. And if ye are prevented, then send such gifts as can be obtained with ease, and shave not your heads until the gifts have reached their destination. And whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering. And if ye are in safety, then whosoever contenteth himself with the visit for the pilgrimage (shall give) such gifts as can be had with ease. And whosoever cannot find (such gifts), then a fast of three days while on the pilgrimage, and of seven when ye have returned; that is, ten in all. That is for him whoso folk are not present at the Inviolable Place of Worship. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in punishment.2:196
 
 
It is not for a believer to kill a believer unless (it be) by mistake. He who hath killed a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave, and pay the blood-money to the family of the slain, unless they remit it as a charity. If he (the victim) be of a people hostile unto you, and he is a believer, then (the penance is) to set free a believing slave. And if he cometh of a folk between whom and you there is a covenant, then the blood-money must be paid unto his folk and (also) a believing slave must be set free. And whoso hath not the wherewithal must fast two consecutive months. A penance from Allah. Allah is Knower, Wise.4:92
 
 
O ye who believe! Kill no wild game while ye are on the pilgrimage. Whoso of you killeth it of set purpose he shall pay its forfeit in the equivalent of that which he hath killed, of domestic animals, the judge to be two men among you known for justice, (the forfeit) to be brought as an offering to the Ka'bah; or, for expiation, he shall feed poor persons, or the equivalent thereof in fasting, that he may taste the evil consequences of his deed. Allah forgiveth whatever (of this kind) may have happened in the past, but whoso relapseth, Allah will take retribution from him. Allah is Mighty, Able to Requite (the wrong).5:89
 
 
58: 3 - 4
 
Those who put away their wives (by saying they are as their mothers) and afterward would go back on that which they have said, (the penalty) in that case (is) the freeing of a slave before they touch one another. Unto this ye are exhorted; and Allah is Informed of what ye do.58:3
 
 
And he who findeth not (the wherewithal), let him fast for two successive months before they touch one another; and for him who is unable to do so (the penance is) the feeding of sixty needy ones. This, that ye may put trust in Allah and His messenger. Such are the limits (imposed by Allah); and for disbelievers is a painful doom.58:4
 
So eat and drink and be consoled. And if thou meetest any mortal, say: Lo! I have vowed a fast unto the Beneficent, and may not speak this day to any mortal. 19:26

Voluntary Fast encouraged (19:26)
 

ramadan fast are obligatory these are prescriptive and conditions from Allah to keep fast but these are not obligatory depend on situation which Allah have clearly mentioned in quran .. no more bla bla  sunni claim  and declaration of  fast on ashura is sunnah must be entirely rejected .. sunni's ulma's  are not god and what's bugg me they are senseless and extremest if u argue with any sunni they will charge u as munkireen -e -Hadith and ur punishment would be death sunni are so  violent , very uneducated behaviour sunni have no sense of debate or argument they dont believe on disagreement they are god father no flexibility  to understand other's perspective and patience level in sunni's is zero.Unfortunately ummah is under the ruling of sunniesum "deaf dumb and blind, they will not understand  Angry

direct contradiction in Quran is  open violation towards divine laws.following of any kind  of these ahadiths would  be consider a sin, an innovation sunni's imam based claim must be entirely rejected no reference in Quran to fast on the day of ashura  entire collection of bukhari is false ,useless .

Allah never allow believer to keep fast for any commemorations this act is haram ,a sin .such extream celebrations have no support from quran  it bring us closer to the danger of idolizing and Idolization happens in small steps and Shitan knows very well how to lead people astray.
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Lo! Allah hath bought from the believers their lives and their wealth because the Garden will be theirs: they shall fight in the way of Allah and shall slay and be slain. It is a promise which is binding on Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. Who fulfilleth His covenant better than Allah? Rejoice then in your bargain that ye have made, for that is the supreme triumph.9:111
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« Reply #6 on: November 18, 2012, 04:03:04 am »

Walaikum Salaam, and thank you very much for this informative elucidation, sister.  Yes, I realize that fasting is prescribed in several situations in the Noble Quran, as you have quoted, as penance or punishments for certain mistakes or in lieu of our inability to perform certain duties commanded by Allah.  Therefore, Allah has specified those situations and of course there's no confusion about that. 

As for Verse 19:26 of Surah Maryam, quote "Lo! I have vowed a fast unto the Beneficent, and may not speak this day to any mortal."  Here fast refers to the 'fast of silence,' that is, not talking to anyone nor answering any questions of others.  It doesn't refer to the fast of abstaining from food.  This was the time when Virgin Maryam was about to give birth to Essa son of Virgin Maryam.  Therefore if you read the preceding verses from V.19:22-30 (which I quote below), these verses mention that before giving birth to Essa, Virgin Maryam withdrew to a far-away place in seclusion.  At that stage Allah did not want others to ask questions from Virgin Maryam because Allah's plan was to show the miracle to the people of that community through Essa by making him to talk from the cradle as a baby.  Until that time, his mother, Virgin Maryam, was commanded by Allah to remain silent.  That's what the verse means when it says "vowed a fast unto the Beneficent,"

Quoting Verses 19:22-30
"And she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a far place. (19:22).
And the pangs of childbirth drove her unto the trunk of the palm-tree. She said: Oh, would that I had died ere this and had become a thing of naught, forgotten!  (19:23).   
Then (one) cried unto her from below her, saying: Grieve not! Thy Lord hath placed a rivulet beneath thee, (19:24).
And shake the trunk of the palm-tree toward thee, thou wilt cause ripe dates to fall upon thee. (19:25).
So eat and drink and be consoled. And if thou meetest any mortal, say: Lo! I have vowed a fast unto the Beneficent, and may not speak this day to any mortal. (19:26).
Then she brought him to her own folk, carrying him. They said: O Mary! Thou hast come with an amazing thing.  (19:27).
O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a wicked man nor was thy mother a harlot.  (19:28).
Then she pointed to him. They said: How can we talk to one who is in the cradle, a young boy ?  (19:29).
He spake: Lo! I am the slave of Allah. He hath given me the Scripture and hath appointed me a Prophet," (19:30).



I will also quote Maududi's tafsir of V.19:26.  That too reflects much the same meaning.

QUOTE:
Maududi's translation of V.19:26
so eat and drink and refresh your eyes; and if you see a man, say to him, `As I have vowed to observe the fast (of silence) for the sake of the Merciful, I wi l l not speak to anyone today.'

Tafsir by Maududi of V.19:26
"That is, "You need not say anything with regard to the child. It is now Our responsibility to answer the critics." This also indicates why Mary was so sad and grieved. Had she been married and given birth to her first baby like any other mother, there was no occasion to tell her to observe "a fast of silence", though it was a common custom among the Jews."
UNQUOTE:

All of of the Verses you quoted on fasting as penance to make up for certain mistakes is perfectly true.  What I mean is that the imams have added too many fasts with a lot of emphasis, almost like fard.  They tell us to fast for the whole of Rajab.  Then they tell us to fast for certain days of Shaban, sometimes almost half of Shaban.  Then after Ramadan, they tell us to fast 6 more days after the first 3 days of Shawaal.  They also say to fast on the Day of Arafat on month of Zil-Hajj for those who don't go for Hajj.  Then they also say to fast on 9th & 10th of Muharram taken from the false hadith I quoted in the post.  Some imams say that we must fast every Monday throughout the year.  While they say so much, Allah only says to fast every Ramadan as an annual obligation.

Like I said, if someone personally decides at an individual level to fast additionally after or before Ramadan as their own personal desire to worship Allah, that's perfectly alright.  For example, if I feel very depressed and I decide to fast tomorrow because it comforts my heart and makes me feel close to Allah, that's very good and I have every right to fast.  But that's my personal choice and not a Quranic obligation from Allah, even though if Allah wishes He might give me extra blessings for it.  So, I can fast myself but I should not generalize it and force others to fast as a rule.  That would be bid'ah and unfortunately this seems to be the attitude of our imams.  They make their personal choice a necessity not only for themselves but for everyone.  As a result, people get so involved in following these bid'ah rules that they don't give too much attention to the fard commandment of Allah.  Some people who strictly observe fasts on Rajab and Shaban (which are not fard) get so tired that by the time Ramadan arrives, they get ill and end up missing some of their fard fasts because of the exhaustion caused by Rajab and Shaban fasting.
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« Reply #7 on: November 18, 2012, 05:46:06 am »


thank u so much sister for the clarification of 19:26  I have read it many times ohh now I got it i had little confussion .. thank u Sister zeynab Smiley

yes correct imams twisted everything ,we or imams have no authority to decleair any fast as fard , fasting to following of any bidah only  behalf of hadith is tottaly wrong..




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Lo! Allah hath bought from the believers their lives and their wealth because the Garden will be theirs: they shall fight in the way of Allah and shall slay and be slain. It is a promise which is binding on Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. Who fulfilleth His covenant better than Allah? Rejoice then in your bargain that ye have made, for that is the supreme triumph.9:111
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« Reply #8 on: November 19, 2012, 03:04:58 am »

Walaikum Salaam.  You are very welcomed dear sister.  May Allah Almighty reward you for your truthful & brilliant pursuit of knowledge.  Ameen, ya Allah.
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