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The Noble Quran on Fasting


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Author Topic: The Noble Quran on Fasting  (Read 618 times)
Zeynab
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« on: February 27, 2010, 05:58:36 am »

 BismEm





A very surprising question that was put to me by a gentleman (or should I say, an 'ulema' in his own way) who had studied Islamic Studies in an university at Malaysia. His query was, "How do we fast and when to break our fast? please give an evidence from the Koran."  You must have guessed his purpose.  He was trying to challenge me that all information on how to fast comes from Hadith because according to him, the Quran says virtually nothing about how to observe fast and its timings.  Please don't ask me what he learned while he was a student of Islamic Studies, because that question is still buzzing in my mind.  I'm at a loss to figure out how a certificate holder in Islamic Studies never knew that the Noble Quran gives every necessary information required for us to fast in a very straight-forward and simple manner, without making it complicated at all.  But I suppose the present syllabus of Islamic Studies is all about making matters complicated with irrelevant details.  Therefore, nothing in their curriculum is from the Quran.  And that's why this person was totally blank regarding Quranic information on fasting.

Here's what the Noble Quran states regarding fasting - complete, simple and upto the point.



Verse 2:187

وكلوا واشربوا حتي يتبين لكم الخيط الابيض من الخيط الاسود من الفجر ثم اتموا الصيام الي الليل

"Eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct from the black. Then fast to the night."

The above verse is so easy and clear to understand that it doesn't even require an explanation. 
 
Allah Almighty mentions that fasting begins from dawn (when the earliest light of dawn starts getting visible) and we are to end our fast after maghrib (sunset), when darkness has fully taken place. 
 
The time to end the fast is "leil." The term 'leil' is specifically used for 'night.' In fact, 'leil' means the 'darkness of the night.'  It doesn't means 'sunset.'  The term used in the Quran for sunset is 'dulook al-shams.' 
 
Therefore, in the month of Ramadan, we begin our fast each day when the white thread of dawn starts appearing until night has fallen, that is, we break (or end) our fast approximately 20 to 25 minutes after the Maghrib prayer, when it's dark by definition. 
 
Whatever changes people have made to this system based on either Hadith or fatwas, that's their responsibility.  What the Noble Quran says is VERY CLEAR and it's this Divine instruction  that's mandatory.


Also please read:

Reasons why the Noble Quran doesn't mention our present method of Salaah
http://muslimvilla.smfforfree.com/index.php?topic=2302.msg6405#msg6405

Noble Quran on Zakah
http://muslimvilla.smfforfree.com/index.php?topic=2309.0

What does the Quran say about Hajj?
http://muslimvilla.smfforfree.com/index.php?topic=2418.0
 
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N. Truth Seeker
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« Reply #1 on: May 28, 2018, 03:08:38 am »



Quoting Verse 2:184
'Ayyāmāan Ma`dūdātin ۚ Faman' Kāna Minkum Marīđāan   Aw `Alá Safarin Fa`iddatun Min 'Ayyāmin 'Ukhara ۚ Wa `Alá  Alladhīna  Yuţīqūnahu Fidyatun Ţa`āmu Miskīnin ۖ Faman Taţawwa`a KhayrāanFahuwa Khayrun Lahu ۚ Wa 'An TaşūmūKhayrun Lakum ۖ 'In Kuntum Ta`lamūna   

Translation:
(Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need - but whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know -


As we know the word "Fidyah" is referred in the Noble Quran Verse 2:184 which means 'ransom.'  It alludes to charity in the form of food to a needy person as a penalty if you miss your fast because of an illness or travelling.  But within our clerical circles the word "kaffarah" is used more often as charity for missed fasts.  Is there a difference between Fidyah and kaffarah?

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« Reply #2 on: May 28, 2018, 04:04:01 am »



No, not really.  Both terms carry much the same meaning in the practical sense as we use them in connection with charity.   The word "fidyah" as you mentioned is contained in Verse 2:184.   Following is the word by word reading.

Ayyāmāan Ma`dūdātin  = (Fasting for) days numbered. 

Faman' Kāna Minkum Marīđāan  = So whosoever among you is sick

Aw `Alá Safarin  = or on a journey

Fa`iddatun Min 'Ayyāmin  'Ukhara = then a prescribed number of days other.

Wa `Alá  Alladhīna  Yuţīqūnahu Fidyatun Ţa`āmu Miskīnin  = and on those who can afford it, a ransom (of) feeding a poor.

The literal meaning of the Arabic term Kaffarah ( كَفّارَة   ) is erasing or wiping off.   It refers to atonement or penitence as a manifestation of repentance for one's transgression or mistake.   This word occurs in Verse 8:29, Surah Al-Anfal.   Following is the word by word reading.

yāayyuhā =  O you

alladhīna = who

āmanū   =  believe

en = if

tattaqū  = you fear

l-laha  = Allah,

yajʿal  = He will grant

lakum = you

fur'qānan =  criterion

wayukaffir  = and will remove

ankum =  from you

sayyiātikum =  your evil deeds

wayaghfir  =  and forgive

lakum =  you.


In the Quran,  "Fidyatun" or "ransom" refers to charity in the form of food given to the poor during Ramadan by someone who is not fasting.   But nowadays fidyah is commonly referred to charity either as food or money given for the same purpose.   I've heard many people refer to this as "kaffarah" as well, which is also charity in the form of money or food given to the needy in Ramadan by those not fasting.   But some jurists have unnecessarily brought in a difference between fidyah and kaffarah.  They view fidyah as charity by a person unable to fast because of old age or chronic/terminal illness from which the person will likely never recover;  they view kaffarah as charity given by a healthy person who missed a fast or fasts for some reason.  However, the Quran does not elucidate on such lines.  The Quran says in V. 2:184 that if someone is travelling or is sick (that is, sick for a while and then recovers) must make up for missed fasts later on.  If they can afford, they can feed a poor person for their missed fasts.   The fact that chronic or terminally people cannot fast is accepted, and if they can afford to pay fidyah, then that would be good for their souls.




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« Reply #3 on: May 29, 2018, 02:17:44 am »




However, the Quran does not elucidate on such lines.  The Quran says in V. 2:184 that if someone is travelling or is sick (that is, sick for a while and then recovers) must make up for missed fasts later on.  If they can afford, they can feed a poor person for their missed fasts.   The fact that chronic or terminally people cannot fast is accepted, and if they can afford to pay fidyah, then that would be good for their souls.

Many thanks Sister.  That was very articulately explained.  So, when the Quran says in V.2:184 that those who are sick or on a journey to fast same number of other days (that is, nafl fasts);  and then, if they can afford it, to feed the poor (fidyah).  Is fidyah in addition to the nafl fasts?  Or, is it either or?

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« Reply #4 on: May 29, 2018, 02:30:12 am »



In my opinion  it's either, or.  Penalties in the Noble Quran for mistakes and oversights have options.  Generally, as far as I know, one has to pick one of those options as penalty.  For those who are chronically sick have just one option, to give fidyah .... and again if they can afford.  After all, some chronically or terminally sick persons can also be poor who may not be able to afford fidyah.  In that case obviously Allah Almighty will never burden them for no fault of theirs nor judge it as a violation if they don't pay fidyah .... right? 

     
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« Reply #5 on: May 29, 2018, 02:37:19 am »



Right, get it.
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