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Day of Jummah and Jummah Prayer


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May 04, 2017, 05:35:01 am N. Truth Seeker: Alhumdulilah, Alhumdulilah.  Still 22 days left.  InshAllah we can thank Allah for granting us the opportunity to experience another of this blessed month for the betterment of our souls.  Thanks for mentioning Sister.
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September 11, 2016, 08:26:43 am Zeynab: Wa'salaam my dear Sis Heba :)  Yes, Alhumdulilah, the 10 days of this blessed month went well by the Grace & Mercy of Allah. I wish the same for all.
September 11, 2016, 02:20:02 am Heba E. Husseyn: Salam my dear MV team and other sis and bros.  I pray the first 10 days of the bless month of Zil Hajj has passed well for all.  Hajj culminates in about 2 days. InshAllah.
August 22, 2016, 09:50:39 pm Zeynab: Wa'salam.  Thanks brother :)  Sis Heba helped me a lot too.
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Ruhi_Rose
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« on: January 06, 2011, 03:29:22 pm »

 BismEm


You might hear many modernists say that the Quran does not mention anything about the Friday congregational prayer.  But they are wrong.  They say this because they either read the Quran with a wandering mind or they purposely distort the truth through incorrect translations.

""O you who believe! When the call is heard for the prayer of the day of congregation, haste unto remembrance of Allah and leave your trading. That is better for you if you did but know."  [62:9]  Surah Al-Jumu'ah
"  [62:9]  Surah Al-Jumu'ah


As we can see for ourselves, in the above Verse the Noble Quran doesn't only refer to the Jummah prayer but also gives a lot of importance to it.  The Arabic word "Jumu'ah" or "Jamm'ah" (جمعة) means 'congregation.'   This congregational prayer is offered once a week in the afternoon and it replaces the regular afternoon Zohr (or Dohr) prayer offered on other days.  It's known as salaat-al-Jummah.   The Islamic week day of Jummah corresponds to the Christian week day of Friday.  

The Jummah prayer is an obligation (fard) for men and is recommended for women to be performed at a mosque along with the congregation (jamm'ah or jamm'at). Women also have the option of performing the Zohr prayer instead, either privately or in a mosque as it might be difficult for some to set out of their homes without their male family members.  Anyone, woman or man, who is unable to join a congregation for jumu'ah is required to make up the prayer with a regular Zohr prayer.  The purpose of this weekly congregational prayer is to give believers a chance to offer prayers together once a week, so that they can see and meet the people of their community at a common venue .. and indeed the masjid is the best common venue for a believer.  

For Muslims living in the West it might be harder to attend congregational prayer in the afternoon, even though it's only once a week, primarily because of the long distances, the absence of masjids in all neighborhoods and no additional breaks on Fridays at workplaces.  That's indeed unfortunate.  But let such folks try their best to attend the Friday prayers.   After all, Allah sees our efforts and intentions a lot more than what we actually achieve.  He is infinitely Merciful.

The method of offering Jummah prayer is exactly the same as all other prayers.  It's shorter than the regular Zohr prayer and consists of only 2 rakats like the Fajr prayer.  The Jummah prayer is preceded by a sermon known as 'khutba' in Arabic.  The sermon can be in any language which is understood by the majority in the congregation.  

By reading Verse 62:11 of the same Surah, Al-Jumu'ah, it seems very possible that the system of delivering the khutba (sermon) was done by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم ).

""But when they spy some merchandise or pastime they break away to it and leave you standing. Say: That which Allah has is better than pastime and than merchandise, and Allah is the Best of providers."  [62:11] Surah Al-Jumu'ah ."  [62:11] Surah Al-Jumu'ah

The above Verse is said to refer to an incident when the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم   was explaining and talking to the people of the congregation during the Jummah prayer (which was very likely the sermon) when most people of this congregation got distracted by the noise of a celebration   outside and ran to see it, leaving the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم   by himself.

Salat Jumm'ah  in  Arabic.
Nemaz Jumm'ah  in Persian.
Jumm'ah Nemazi  in Turkish.

The Jummah (congregation) Prayer is therefore very much a Quranic injunction.


More feedback from MV Team will be helpful for readers.
 
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« Reply #1 on: January 14, 2011, 11:43:25 pm »

Big thanks Sister Ruhi.  An essential reminder many don't even consider an obligation.  The Jum'ah salat is very much a Quranic commandment .. more for men than women I would think.  Nowadays with this mass immigration of Muslims in non-Muslim countries, many Muslims end up missing Friday prayers in congregation on almost every Friday.   It's just so unfortunate but sometimes these folks can't help it either. Of course we make it up with Dohr, but may Allah forgive. In some cases the distance to the nearest masjid is too much or they just can't get that extra time.  Considering the very tough situation for Muslims in the West presently, I'm sure they would be sacked from their workplaces if they asked for extra time on Fridays for joining a congregational prayer.  In some workplaces where there is a large number of Muslim workers, they would have their own congregational prayers within the premises of the workplace.  But nowadays with so much hatred against the Muslim community, no non-Muslim workplace allows this any longer. 
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« Reply #2 on: January 14, 2011, 11:50:47 pm »

Btw, it's obvious that the name Jum'ah given to that day is on account of the Jam'ah or congregation prayers.  Apparently that particular day selected by the Prophet (S) for offering congregational prayer at that time came to be known as Jum'ah.  But most people seem to miss this point.  They think it's the other way round, as if one of the days called Jum'ah already existed and the congregational prayer was fitted into it. 
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« Reply #3 on: January 17, 2011, 12:19:31 am »

Btw, it's obvious that the name Jum'ah given to that day is on account of the Jam'ah or congregation prayers.  Apparently that particular day selected by the Prophet (S) for offering congregational prayer at that time came to be known as Jum'ah.  But most people seem to miss this point.  They think it's the other way round, as if one of the days called Jum'ah already existed and the congregational prayer was fitted into it. 

This is a good point you've stated sister Heba.  I agree with your perception.  I too have pondered over it many times.  Please provide some more info, if anyone has it.

Plenty of thanks from me too Sister Ruhi.  Very accurately put.  It's definitely a Quranic commandment.  The fact that it's gotten a bit hard for Muslims living in non-Muslim lands to abide by it is much too unfortunate to say the least. 
   
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« Reply #4 on: March 22, 2017, 02:25:54 am »

I had missed this post for years and found it now via Google while searching  :)

Thank you for the relevant info Sister Ruhi. 

I'm looking to get some more info on the origin of the day Jumm'ah as Sister Zeynab also requested earlier in her comment here.

"The Islamic week day of Jummah corresponds to the Christian week day of Friday. "

"it's obvious that the name Jum'ah given to that day is on account of the Jam'ah or congregation prayers.  Apparently that particular day selected by the Prophet (S) for offering congregational prayer at that time came to be known as Jum'ah.  But most people seem to miss this point.  They think it's the other way round, as if one of the days called Jum'ah already existed and the congregational prayer was fitted into it." 

I understand the above points, but I would like an analysis of it.  What I mean is, how did our Muslim jamm'ah or congregational prayer happen to be adjusted on the Christian calendar of "Friday?"

For e.g.  Islam ru writes "Friday is the sixth day in Islamic week. The literal meaning of Friday is congregation."

If you focus on this statement, it's not correct.  They are forgetting that "Friday" is the name of the 5th day of the week in the Christian calendar.  During the Prophet's (pbuh) time or earlier, there was no day of the week known as "Friday" in the Arabian peninsula.  Well, I know there were Christians living in Medinah as minority in the 6th and 7th centuries who might be following the Christian week days because the Jews and pagans had their own week day names.  But I'm quite sure that until the 7th century the Christian week days which were named after the sun, moon and planets had different names.  Probably Friday was named after the planet Venus. That was changed into "Freya" by Anglo Saxons based on one of their idols.  The name 'freya' later became Friday .. don't know how.  But that's not important to me.  Names of Christian week days and how they came about has a long and boring history with pagan roots as the Romans and Anglo Saxons were formerly pagans.

Coming back to my actual question, how did Jumm'ah prayer get adjusted with Friday of the Christian week calendar and consequently "Jummah" became the Arabic equivalent of Friday? 

Looking forward to reading your views, Insh'Allah.

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« Reply #5 on: March 24, 2017, 01:19:30 am »

Salam and good question brother.  You're also right the names of Christian week days have very pagan origins and is a complicated, irrelevant mess.

To focus on the topic you are inquiring about .....

The only common feature between Islamic, Jewish and Christian weeks is that the total number of days are seven in all three week calendars. In Islam, every new day begins at Fajr, including Jumah.  Among Jews, I would presume new days begin at sunset and so their sabbath day on Saturday begins at dusk.  For Christians new day begins at midnight including their religious day, Sunday.

According to our jurists, the seven Islamic week days and their official serial arrangement corresponding to the Christian week days are as follows:-  This is from E. Arabic Learning.



Please know, in the Islamic week days written in English alphabets above, the sound of "s" is written as "th" as they often do.  Therefore the Islamic week days can more easily be pronounced as follows:-

1)  As-Sabt
2)  Al-Ahad
3) A-lisnayn 
4) As sulasa
5) Al-arbaa
6) Al-khamis
7)  Al-jumah

As we know, "yawm" in Arabic means 'day.'   These names of Islamic week days are authentic.

However, I have no information on how or when the above arrangement of numbering the Islamic days corresponding to Jewish/Christian days were decided.   But I am certain that during the Prophet's (pbuh) lifetime in the Medinah era, this was NOT the serial arrangement of the Islamic week days.  The Sabbath in the Quran has been mentioned as a day that was instructed to the Jews aforetime. The Quran does not instruct the followers of the Monotheistic Faith to continue observing Sabbath.  Thus, Sabbath had / has no significance among those who follow the Final Message, The Noble Quran.  In other words, the Islamic week days did not start from As-Sabt and end with Al-jumah as being interpreted today.  Rather it started with Al-Ahad (which is Sunday according to Jews & Christians).  The name of this day is itself the evidence that it is the first day of the Islamic week.  As we all know, Al-Ahad in Arabic means THE ONE.  In this weekly calendar, Al-Ahad refers to 'the first' meaning the first day of the week.  Thus, quite surely, the Muslim weekly calendar starts with Al-Ahad (corresponding to Sunday for Christians & Jews) as the first day of the Islamic a week and ends at As-Sabt (corresponding to Saturday) as the 7th day of the Islamic week, and Al-Jumm'ah - the day of gathering or congregation prayer - is the sixth day of the our Islamic week.  One can be pretty certain that this is the way it was during the Prophet's (pbuh) time in Medinah.  This is surely the right arrangement.

With Jews and Christians, the week starts with Monday and ends on Sunday.  This means, Monday is the first day of their week and Sunday is the last.  The religious days of Jews and Christians - Saturdays & Sundays, respectively - are the sixth and seventh days of their week.

So,  here is how I would arrange it:



Hence, the answer to your question:  Al-Jumm'ah is the sixth day of our week calendar  that coincides with the fifth day of the Christian/Jewish week of Friday.  Since many Muslims today aren't acquainted with the Arabic names of our week days, they simply draw parallels between Jumm'ah and Friday and so Friday is commonly taken as the Islamic equivalent of Jumm'ah.  But in reality, Jumm'ah of the Islamic week and Friday of the Christian week have very, very different origins.  Jumm'ah is named after the day of gathering or congregation prayers as instructed in the Noble Quran.  Origin of the name Friday, as you mentioned, is nothing but a pagan fiction.

Many Muslim sources do accept Al-Jumm'ah as the sixth day of our weekly calendar, but they also put up As-Sabt as the first day.  In that case (even if As-Sabt) is taken as a holiday, serially Al-Jummah becomes the 7th day as shown in the Islamic calendar posted by E.Arabic Learning.    But this is not the case as Sabbath is not observed by Muslims and henceforth it isn't recognized as such, making it simply the last or 7th day of the Islamic week.  That's it.

It's also very possible that Al-Jummah was not a day of rest (or holiday) in Medinah during the Prophet's time.  For that reason Verses 62:9-10 clearly indicate that after the congregation prayer is over, believers are entitled to resume their work or business.  Or, even if it was a day of rest, there's nothing wrong if someone wants to work on that day.

Last but not least (something I already stated earlier as you quoted), it wasn't the day of gathering or the day of congregational prayer that was fitted into an already existing day called "Friday" in Medinah, something which many Muslim circles too keep implying.  Rather, it was the 6th day of the Islamic week which came to be named "Jumm'ah" after the day of congregation prayer as instructed in the Noble Quran.
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« Reply #6 on: March 26, 2017, 02:44:49 am »

Walaikum Salaam dear Sister Heba.  SubhanAllah.  I read your post with wrapt concentration.  Very informative and helpful, particularly clarifying that Jumm'ah is not in any way same as Friday.  It's just that Jumm'ah as the 6th day of our Islamic weekly calendar happens to coincide with Friday in another weekly calendar.   It was also interesting to read the names of other Islamic weeks.  Most Muslims (forget about non-Muslims) would only know the name Jumm'ah.  Hardly any of them know the names of other week days.  Isn't that sad?  Many thanks Sister.  Great post.

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« Reply #7 on: April 01, 2017, 03:35:25 am »

Walaykum Salam.  Tons of thanks Sister Heba.  Very helpful clarification.  Couldn't come earlier as was bogged down with a couple of customers staying at our place as house guests. 

The meanings of Al-Jumm'ah and Al-Ahad are of course known to us.  Would you have the  definitions of the other four Arabic week names? 

By the way, I suppose the week names in Arabia before Islam were different, right?
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« Reply #8 on: April 07, 2017, 04:38:09 am »

Salam again and thankx me brother! :)  No problem, I apologize for this late response too.  Same here, was bogged down with some relatives (in-laws) staying with us on spring vacation.

Coming to your query about the definitions of other 4 Islamic week days .. let me mention all 7 days.  And yes, the Arabic names of week days prior to Islam were different.  I'll mention them too. 

Five Islamic week names (Sunday to Thursday) are basically numerical in serial order referring to their serial arrangement.

Al-Ahad (coincides with Sunday)  which translates as “First” and is derived from number “One واحــِــد” and means “The One الأحــد” .  As we know, this word is also one of the 99 names of Allah Almighty.  In the Islamic weekly calendar it refers to "first," that is, first day of the week.
As far as I know, pre-Islamic Arabs called it "Awwal" (أوَّل) which means number 1 alluding to day no.1 of the week.

Lisnayn (coincides with Monday) literally means two, referring to 2nd day of week.
Before Arabs used to call it "Ahwun" ( أهــون).

Al-Sulasa (which falls on Tuesday) means three referring to 3rd day of week.
Arabs used to formerly call it "Jabar" ( جــبــار).

Al-Arba (falls on Wednesday) means number four referring to 4th day of week.
Arabs used to call it "Dubar" (دُبــار).

Al-Khamis (comes on Thursday) means number five referring to 5th day of week.
Arabs called it before "Monis" ( مــُــؤنــِــس).

Al-Jum’ah  (which falls on christian week day of Friday) is derived from the Arabic root verb "to gather of day of gathering" ( جــمــع).   It's the sixth day of the week.
Pre-Islamic Arabs called it "Arooba" (عــَــروبــَــة).

Al-Sabt  (which coincides with Saturday) means "to rest or relax"  (ســبــت). It's the 7th and last day of the Islamic week. This term is also mentioned in the Noble Quran. Saturday is also a weekend holiday in some Arab countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Al-Sabt is almost identical with the Hebrew words Shabbat and Sabbath which is Jewish day of rest observed on Saturday of Christian calendar.  There are quite a few similar sounding words between Arabic and Hebrew as both languages originated in nearby regions.
Pre-Islamic Arabs referred to this day as  "Shayar" (شــبــار).

Some folks might want to know when did the week names on Muslim weekly calendar change and why.  I would surmise that the week names definitely changed the same time when the Islamic Hijra calendar of Islamic lunar months commenced.  They changed because as Muslims our first community in Medinah wanted their own choice / system of naming and calculating the week days and months as any community would prefer.

Since I'm not an expert in Arabic language, I wouldn't know the meanings of the week days of pre-Islamic weekly calendar but they aren't the same as the meanings of Islamic week days. And since those names are not in use any longer, their definitions are not important either.
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« Reply #9 on: April 08, 2017, 01:41:53 am »

Thanks again abundantly for your time and the information you shared, sister Heba, despite having to take care of so much at home.  This has really helped to clarify a lot.  I'll make a backup of this info. 
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« Reply #10 on: April 08, 2017, 01:49:07 am »

You are welcomed brother.  It's a pleasure helping our sisters and brothers.  Alhumdulilah.
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