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Conquest of Makah - the only bloodless conquest in world history


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Author Topic: Conquest of Makah - the only bloodless conquest in world history  (Read 480 times)
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« on: December 05, 2011, 03:01:57 am »

How did it begin?
The event that directly led to the conquest of Makkah was the breaking of the truce of Hudaybiyah by the Qureysh.  The truce of Hudaybiyah was a peace treaty valid for ten years between Qureysh and Medinah when there were to be no wars and no killings.  The treaty was approved in the year 6 A.H. and violated by Qureysh in 8 A.H.  Qureysh attacked and killed many members of a tribe at Makkah which was in alliance with the Prophet.  Soon afterwards, Qureysh became nervous of what it had done.  Abu Sufian of Qureysh was sent to Medinah as emissary to request for the remaining treaty to be renewed and its term prolonged.  Qureysh hoped its emissary would arrive in Medinah before the tidings of the massacre.  But a messenger from the injured tribe arrived in Medinah before Abu Sufian and his embassy was fruitless.

Conquest of Makkah
The Prophet (S) then summoned all Muslims capable of bearing arms and marched to Makkah.  Qureysh was over-awed.  Its cavalry put up a show of defiance before the people of Makkah but to no avail.  It was routed without bloodshed and the Prophet entered his native city as conqueror.  Numerous citizens of Makkah feared vengeance for their past crimes against the Prophet (S) and his followers.  But the Prophet proclaimed general amnesty.  Only a few very notorious criminals were proscribed but only for a while.  They too were soon pardoned.  Abu Sufian was so horrified that he is reported to have fled Makkah.  He returned a fortnight later after being sure that there was general amnesty for all.  He was never harmed after his return even though the crimes by him and his family against Islam were plenty.  In their relief and surprise, the people of Makkah en masse hastened to swear allegiance and embrace Islam.  

The Prophet (S) ordered all idols which were within the Kaaba to be destroyed which was the prime goal of his mission as the Messenger of Allah.  Soon after, the Muslim call for prayer was heard at Makkah.  

In the same year (8 A.H.) there was an angry gathering of a few pagan tribes to regain the Kaaba.  The Prophet (S) led an army of 12,000 against them.  This was known as the battle of Huneyn which was a difficult one.  In a deep ravine at Huneyn, the Muslim army was ambushed by the enemy.  It was with much effort that they rallied to the Prophet (S) and his bodyguards of the faithfuls who stood firm.  And victory, when it came, was complete.

The Thaqif tribe of the city of Taif was among the enemies of Huneyn.  After the victory at Huneyn, the Muslim army besieged Taif and this city soon surrendered.  

Return to Medinah
After the conquest of Makkah and having dealt with the uprising at Huneyn that followed, the Prophet (S) appointed a governor at Makkah and himself returned to Medinah to the boundless joy of the Ansars (the citizens of Medinah) who always loved the Prophet dearly and feared lest, now that he had regained his native city, he might forsake them and make Makkah the capital.  But that was not to happen.  The Prophet (S) was back in Medinah which continued being the capital of the first Islamic state until his death in the year 10 A.H.

The official proclamation concerning the Kaaba
Although Makkah was conquered in 8 A.H., its citizens embraced Islam and the idols had been removed from the Kaaba, the pagans were still allowed to visit the sanctuary and perform in their manner and the Muslims in their manner.  

It was a year later in 9 A.H., after the Muslim pilgrims' caravan left Medinah when the Declaration of Immunity (as its called) was promulgated.*  Abu Bakr and Ali led this caravan of pilgrims.  The Prophet (S) sent a copy of the Declaration through Abu Bakr with the instruction that it was to be read to the multitudes in Makkah by Ali.  The Declaration of Immunity announced that after that year (9 A.H.), only Muslims were to make the pilgrimage to the Kaabah, exception being made for those idolaters who had a treaty with the Muslims and who had never broken their treaty nor supported anyone against them.  This condition would be valid until the treaty expired.  This proclamation of Declaration of Immunity marks the end of idol-worship in Arabia.  

The 9th year of the Hijrah was one of the busiest for the Prophet (S).  Deputations came to Medinah from all parts of Arabia to swear allegiance to the Prophet and to hear the Noble Quran.  The Prophet (S) had become, in fact, the emperor of Arabia but his way of life remained no different from that of a common citizen of Medinah and just as simple as ever before.  

The Prophet (S) made his final pilgrimage to Makkah in the year 10 A.H., often known as the "farewell pilgrimage."  His final sermon was given on this occasion from Mount Arafat in Makkah.  At the end of the discourse, he confirmed with the people of having conveyed Allah's message to them (that is, the Noble Quran).  It was indeed a very moving moment.  Surah An-Nasr (Succour), Chapter 110 of the Quran, which is generally taken to be revealed at Medinah was most likely revealed at Makkah during the final pilgrimage and was one of the final Divine Revelations.  The final verse quite definitely is portion of Verse 5:3 of Surah Al-Maidah, quote: "This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam."  Soon after the Prophet's arrival in Medinah from his final pilgrimage, he became ill and passed away a few weeks later.  The Prophet (S) is buried in Medinah.  


* Refer to Verses 9:3-7 of Surah At-Taubah and also refer to our post Surah At-Taubah, interpretation of Verses 2 to 14.  Non-Muslims often blatantly & foolishly misunderstand and misinterpret this topic.
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« Reply #1 on: December 11, 2011, 07:20:04 pm »

Thanks in plenty sis.  I love this one.  Great piece of the most remarkable event of history - a complete conquest without bloodshed and general amnesty which wasn't just implemented in words but in total practice. 

Thanks to Allah for accepting our efforts in search of truth and granting us guidance to become believers.
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