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Trade Caravans in the Muslim era and what destroyed them


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Zeynab
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« on: October 05, 2014, 09:44:31 pm »

"Trade Routes inherited by the Muslim civilization were ruined by invading Crusaders, Mongold and the Portuguese.  According to Ibn Khaldun such invasions ruined economies and caused a rise in banditry and piracy.

The Crusades put the Islamic world under pressure with invasions in the 11th and 12th centuries, but a far greater threat emerged from the East during the 13th century: in 1206, Genghis Khan established a powerful dynasty among the Mongols of central Asia. During the 13th century, this Mongol Empire conquered most of the Eurasian land mass, including China in the east and much of the old Islamic caliphate (as well as Kievan Rus) in the west. The destruction of Baghdad and the House of Wisdom by Hulagu Khan in 1258 has been seen by some as the end of the Islamic Golden Age.  Later Mongol leaders, such as Timur, destroyed many cities, slaughtered hundreds of thousands of people, and did irrevocable damage to the ancient irrigation systems of Mesopotamia.

There is little agreement on the precise causes of the decline, but in addition to invasion by the Mongols and crusaders, and the destruction of libraries and madrasahs, it has also been suggested that political mismanagement and the stifling of ijtihad (independent reasoning) in the 12th century in favor of institutionalised taqleed (imitation) thinking played a part."

Sources of above excerpts :-
( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Golden_Age )
( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh%27s_Island )


Painting below is of a trade caravan near Pharaoh's Island (also known as Coral Island), which refers to a very small island in the northern Gulf of Aqaba off the shore of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula.  Pharaoh's Island is a short ferry ride from Taba.  Saladin's 12th century fortress in located in this island.



Attributions: Wikipedia -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Golden_Age#mediaviewer/File:Isle_of_Graia3.jpg
Uploaded by Adam Cuerden
Created: February 27, 1839
.... from drawings made on the spot by David Roberts

.... depicting the Pharaoh's Island in the northern Gulf of Aqaba off the shore of Egypt's eastern Sinai Peninsula.

For more details visit the links above.




Destruction of the House of Wisdom by the Mongols in 1200s and the Americans in 2003 - for information read Baghdad: Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) and the destruction of its books
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« Reply #1 on: October 07, 2014, 01:40:54 am »

Salam Sister. Great historical info and lovely art image.  Its medieval comparison with the modern picture is particularly interesting.  The small green shrubs on the shore that appear in Ferrel Jenkins modern photo of Pharaoh's Island along with the view of the sea, Saladin's fortress and Hejazz mountains in the background is the same stretch of the area painted by David Roberts in 1839.   Very beautiful indeed.

Thank you Sister Zeynab.   As usual, the stuff you put up is so informative and well presented.
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Zeynab
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« Reply #2 on: October 07, 2014, 01:47:35 am »

Wa'salaam brother.  Thank you.  Yes, you're so correct.  That comparison is truly fascinating.  As far as the little island is concerned, except for the Egyptian flag in Saladin's fortress seen in the modern pic, it apparently hasn't changed.
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« Reply #3 on: October 07, 2014, 01:50:12 am »

Exactly, I observed that too.
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Heba E. Husseyn
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« Reply #4 on: October 12, 2014, 02:54:19 am »

Wow, I can't tell you how much I love this painting.  SubhanAllah. 

Very interesting information.  So Wikipedia too admits the Mongols and Crusaders were the destroyers of civilization.  At last it spoke the truth.
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« Reply #5 on: October 12, 2014, 03:07:54 am »

Yeah MashAllah, interesting history and marvelous pic.  Why is it called pharaoh's island?  And how come it's never shown on the map .. I suppose this island is very close to Taba Heights in northern Sinai, Taba being a beach and holiday resort.
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« Reply #6 on: October 12, 2014, 03:16:26 am »

It's called pharaoh's island because according to some story it was claimed that this island was first used during the reign of Rameses III who was the last pharaoh of Egypt  around 1100 plus BC .. the one who got drowned during the time of Prophet Moses (pbuh).  Only Allah knows if pharaoh Rameses used that island.  Historical and archeological evidence shows all Egyptian pharaohs lived in mainland Egypt, not in the Sinai region which at that time was a barren rocky desert surrounded by wilderness .. the same period when Prophet Moses (pbuh) traveled through the Sinai (most likely northern Sinai) with his people during the Exodus.  This region began getting inhabited much later during the time of the crusaders and then Saladin.  Saladin's fortress stands until today.

It cannot be seen in the maps because it's too small and too close to Taba Heights; only 8 km south of Taba.  So it can hardly been seen as a separate piece from Taba in the map.
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« Reply #7 on: October 12, 2014, 03:27:44 am »

Oww!  okaay .... thanks my dear sis  Smiley   get it now.
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« Reply #8 on: October 12, 2014, 03:29:02 am »

You're most welcomed my sista!  Cheesy

Allah bless.
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