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Mutual Consultation in the NOBLE QURAN - Cornerstone of Democracy


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Heba E. Husseyn
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« on: October 20, 2014, 09:29:02 pm »

 BismEm


 salamem

Foundation of Democracy or Peoples' Rule in the NOBLE QURAN:
 


"And those who answer the call of their Lord and establish worship, and whose affairs are a matter of counsel, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them,"  (42:38)  Ash-Shura or Consultation.

Corpus Quran translates the underlined portion as follows with original Arabic words in brackets.

"and their affairs {wa-amruhum} (are conducted by) consultation {shūrā} among them {baynahum},"  (42:38).

This is a very interesting Quranic topic.  You must have heard plenty of debates whether or not Islam promotes "democracy" which in all correctness means (or should mean) peoples' rule.  No Muslim jurist or scholar has stated the fact in an upfront manner that Islam (which authentically comes only from the Quran) has already established the foundation expressing the concept of governance by a group and not a single individual as early as the 7th century.  This is the earliest infrastructure for what's today known as peoples' rule.  The reason why our jurists hesitate to confirm it is because they do not take the Quran as the Sole Criterion for information.  Rather they hardly consult it.   Being distracted by a load of extra-Quranic works that have piled up over the past centuries, which unlike the Noble Quran, prefer absolutism over mutual consultation, most of our jurists adjudge collective decision-making outside the bounds of Islam.

The word "Ash-Shura" or Consultation mentioned in Verse 38 of Surah 42 has been taken as the title of this Surah. That itself highlights the importance of the practice of consultation in all walks of life of a believer.  Let it be clear, peoples' will (or democracy) as we discuss here with references to the Noble Quran does NOT connote to the typical Western-style of manipulated "democracy" that has unfortunately become the face of "freedom" in the New World Order used as a weapon to ignite strife and misunderstandings.  What they call "democracy" or peoples' will in the West is a distortion of the real concept of freedom which has a very wide sphere.  Western "democracy" applies to a very limited field of life, only as far as it does not interfere with the wider global policies of the NWO and its impact at home.  Hence, we see the illogical double standards and the mass media propaganda to promote impropriety in the name of freedom as a facade, concealing the real worth and benefits of freedom, equality and egalitarian values.  The precept of teamwork has been highlighted in the Quran with a pronounced gesture of looking upon your family, friends, comrades, colleagues, juniors and all citizens as your confidantes, seeking their opinion/advise in all relevant matters.  It doesn't necessarily imply that you must implement the opinion of every single person you consult into your final decision.  But it's incumbent upon a patriarch or matriarch of a family or the leader of a country, tribe or community to collectively entertain every person's view (either directly or via their counsel of representatives) and mutually construct a decision which must be an amalgam of mutual views.

Consultation forms the basis of mutual decision and team work.  It's the opposite of an autocratic stance where one person pushes ahead to decide and speak for everyone regardless of their opinion or feelings.  Such a mindset has clearly been discouraged in the Noble Quran at an era when despotism was the only method of governance throughout the world.

In Verse 42:38, "whose affairs are a matter of councel" refers to collective decision on significant matters.   In other words, deciding the important issues of life through mutual consultation between all rather than independently is the preferred choice as elucidated in the Noble Quran.   

The relevance of mutual consultation refers to all spheres of life -  family, friends, workplace, government etc.    Remember, the Noble Quran came in the 7th century.  It was a time when all parts of the world were doused in despotism in all facets.  Be it kingdoms or households, no one talked after the king or queen;  and decision-making was the sole prerogative of  a patriarch or matriarch of every family.   But in Islam, Allah Almighty told even the final messenger (pbuh) to consult with his people prior to making decisions.

"So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs."   (3:159)  Al-Imran.

Renouncing the Quranic ideology and embracing absolutism was initiated in the Islamic political world by the Ummayads, also introducing the ideology of kingship or the hereditary system of rule.  The Islamic school of Mu'tazilah that originated in Basra and Baghdad bitterly opposed the Ummayad approach upholding docility of the people.  The Mu'tazilah accepted the conditions for al-'amr wa al-nahy by not limiting it to the 'heart and tongue.'  They maintained that if unlawful practices become common or if the state is oppressive and unjust, it is obligatory for Muslims to rise and protest.  If that doesn't work, then an armed revolt to confront corruption and oppression is justifiable as the next move.  But the Ummayads adhered to a very autocratic style, identical to the European and English monarchies of the era and later, including the Tudors of the 1400s onward.  Their own political blunders made it  necessary for the Ummayads to stifle the opinion of members of their own government, a negative shift that gradually became a system in total violation of the Quran.

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) never appointed his successor prior to his passing.  Even though he had plenty of close relatives, friends and two young grandsons, his vision was vastly different from all other contemporary heads of state, that after him it was up to the people of Medinah and Makkah through their representatives of the Shura or Counsel to select the person they wanted as their political leader. That story about Ghadeer-e-Khum claiming that the Prophet (pbuh) chose Imam Ali as his successor is dross .. completely false.  It's one of those Shiia tales to counter the Sunni myths of Bukhari etc.  Neither did the Prophet (pbuh) choose Imam Ali (nor anyone else) as his successor nor did Imam Ali ever suggest any such ideas to the Prophet.  They were both remarkably noble men with the firmest of commitment to the principles of the Quran, The Final Divine Message.  Invented stories by people of later times falsely attributed to them and portraying them as men overlooking Quranic directives, are profoundly regrettable to say the least.

Soon after Abu Bakr Sidiq was chosen as the first Caliph by the Shura after the passing of the Prophet (pbuh), he addressed a crowd of Muslims who gathered at the Prophet's mosque:  "I have been given the authority over you, and I am not the best of you. If I do well, help me; and IF I DO WRONG, SET ME RIGHT."

Imam Ali's eagerness for upholding people's opinion is just as well-known.  Although he had many opponents, he flatly stated that he had no authority to punish anyone simply for their opinions or disagreements.

Additionally, the importance of consultation is also elucidated in Verse 3:159 (quoted below) where the Prophet (pbuh) is told by Allah Almighty to decide important matters in consultation with the people around him in Medinah.  This is also a very important Verse that elucidates the necessity of reciprocal discussions for believers in all social and political matters.  The following Verse 3:159 defines precisely the same concept of the same topic as Verse 42:38 except that it's a bit more specific alluding to a political sphere where The Almighty informs the Prophet (pbuh) the importance of mutual decision-making and power sharing instead of despotism which would only lead to a fallout having a negative impact on the first nascent Islamic State.

"So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs. And when thou art resolved, then put thy trust in Allah. Lo! Allah loveth those who put their trust (in Him)."  (3:159)  Surah Al-Imran.

The commentary of Mr. Maududi is worth quoting who has analyzed the term "consultation" or "shura" mentioned in Verse 42:38 very comprehensively - it's importance being both in personal as well as political spheres.  By reading the following passage, it's simple for anyone to deem that the Noble Quran has very definitely laid the cornerstone of the concept of peoples' will & rule through bilateral talks and collective decision-making much before any other institution in this world even came close to it. 

By Maududi as follows:-

QUOTE -
Consultation is an important pillar of the Islamic way of life.  To conduct the affairs of collective life without consultation is not only the way of ignorance but also a violation of the law prescribed by Allah. When we consider why consultation has been given such importance in Islam, three things become obvious:

First, it is injustice that a person should decide a matter based on his personal opinion and ignore others when it involves the interests of two or more persons. No one has a right to do as he likes in matters of common interest. Justice demands that aII those whose interests are involved in a matter must be consulted, and if it concerns a large number of the people, their reliable representatives should be made a party in consultation.

Second, that a man tries to do what he likes in matters of common interest because he wants to usurp the rights of others for selfish ends, or because he looks down upon others and regards himself as a superior person. Morally both these qualities are equally detestable.  A believer cannot have even a tinge of either of these characteristics within himself. A believer is neither selfish so that he should get undue benefits by usurping the rights of others, nor he is arrogant and conceited that he should regard himself as aII-wise and aII-knowing.

Third, it is a grave responsibility to make decisions in matters that involve the rights and interests of others. No one who fears Allah Almighty and realizes the seriousness of the accountability he will be subjected to before his Rab for making such decisions can dare to take the heavy burden of it solely upon himself. Such a boldness is shown only by those who are proud, who are fearless of Allah and heedless of the Hereafter. The one who fears Allah and is aware of the accountability on the Day of Judgment will certainly want to consult all concerned persons or their authorised representatives in every matter of common interest so as to reach, as far as possible, an objective and equitable decision.  And if there occurs a mistake, a single person alone should not be held responsible for it.

A deep consideration of these three points can enable us to fully understand that consultation is a necessary demand of the morality that Islam has taught to man, and departure from it is a grave immorality which Islam does not permit.

The Islamic way of life requires that the principle of consultation should be used in every collective affair, big or small. If it is a domestic affair, the husband and the wife should act by mutual consultation.  When the children are grown up, they also should be consulted. If it is a matter concerning the whole family, the opinion of every adult member be solicited. If it concerns a tribe or a fraternity or the population of a city, and it is not possible to consult every person, then the decision should be taken by a local council or committee which should comprise of trustworthy representatives of the concerned people according to an agreed method. If the matter concerns a whole nation, the head of the government should be appointed by the common consent of the people and he should conduct the national affairs in consultation with the representatives whom the people regard as reliable.  Also, the head of the government should remain at the helm of affair only as long as the people themselves want him to remain in that position. No honest man can try to assume the leadership of a nation by force or desire to continue in that position indefinitely nor should desire to come to power by deception and then seek the people's consent by coercion.  He must not devise schemes so that the people may elect representatives to act as his advisers not by their own free choice but according to his will. Such a thing can be desired only by the one who cherishes evil intentions, and all such practices violate the Quranic principle of mutual consultation.  Most importantly, Allah Almighty is All-Knower and All-Seer.  NO person through his pride or scheming can deceive Allah.

UNQUOTE - 



Related posts:

Of Democracy the Quran states.
“Amr bi al-Ma’ruf Wa Nahy ‘an al- munkar”
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« Reply #1 on: October 27, 2014, 03:02:19 am »

Walaikum Salaam dear sis.  Read this post two or three times over.   Posting the words 'thank you' barely seems adequate.   I could never get over my sadness for losing the article I wrote on this topic at IslamOnline forum and carelessly forgot to save a backup;  so when the forum shut down, I lost my piece.  As I read your work, it's like retrieving the one I lost.  Allah Almighty bless you sis Heba.  Wonderfully written and arranged.  Have saved it this time.

The wide connotation of the Quranic expression "mutual consultation" is the earliest conceptual establishment of equality and egalitarian principles alluding to peoples' choice & decisions.  It's the first conceptual framework limiting the authority of any single individual, be it the head of a state, tribe, community or family.

I repeat, Allah Almighty bless you sister.

My request to readers:  Please read carefully and send around.
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« Reply #2 on: November 03, 2014, 09:17:17 am »

Wa'Salam and SubhanAllah.  Very, very illuminating and refreshing post Sister Heba.  Sorry for not coming and responding earlier as my family and I were out of station for a week.  I read it three days ago and soon after we scheduled our monthly discussion.  I took this piece with me and we had a long and productive talk.  Even the hadiseers liked it Smiley

Another bit that I would like to add here is for the purpose of informing our readers of the nefarious attacks by the kuffar over this topic.  Just a day after our discussion, we went to one of the libraries  close by where a nutbar kaffir (who claimed to be a visitor of some skeptic website) talked a lot of deplorable hogwash and was also strongly rebuffed by us.  Eventually the bugger chickened out with a defeated smile trying to cajole himself into thinking that he was the winner.  So let me describe a portion of his ignorance.  You may come across other kuffar in future talking in this manner and I request our readers not to get duped by any of them. 

There is a website on skeptics trying to trash the Quran with their ignorance.   You know what those nose scabs are upto?   They quote verses 18:26 and 42:10 with the intention to show that Quran is anti democratic.  Let me quote those verses which those kuffar had picked:

"He maketh none to share in His government."(18:26).

"And in whatsoever ye differ, the verdict therein belongeth to Allah." (42:10).

The skeptics have only proven that they are not just inept but their ineptness belongs to a very brainless category with blitzed minds filled with oversights.
We are talking about the system on earth, not in the Kingdom of The Almighty, The One and Only.  Of course HE makes none to share HIS Government (Alhumdulilah) and this is the essence of Monothesim (Tawheed).  Allah has also said in His Glorious Message that HE is the Rich and we humans are the poor.  It is a proud designation for us to be HIS slaves and ONLY HIS.  We submit to HIM, we serve HIM only and we surrender to HIM only.  But the limited minds of the skeptic kuffar is too weak to discern this.

They are also much too incompetent to grasp that earthly world and the Hereafter are two very separate entities with very different laws.  They are incapable to comprehending the superiority of Allah.  Their low grade arrogance makes it impossible for them to understand that Allah is the Rich and we are the poor and Allah's superiority dare NOT apply to anyone else.  Thus, they find it too difficult to construe or interpret the difference between a temporary government framed by the erring human mind and the flawless Government permanently established by HIM that works in accordance with Divine Rules.

As Allah says in the Quran that if there were other deities trying to impose their will then the entire universe would have been corrupted.  The reason the universe runs so smoothly and peacefully in an amazingly organized manner and for an appointed term is because there is NO god but ONLY ALLAH, THE ALMIGHTY, THE ONE AND ONLY .. and He makes NONE to share HIS Government.  This ONLY applies to Allah.  If the erring humans on earth try to follow this system, they will make a mess of it because inherently humans are wholly prone to tyranny and greed .. unlike Allah Who is wholly prone to mercy, tenderness and forgiveness.  Hence the Noble Quran orders "mutual consultation" to the human society, an ideology which modern politics came up with only a century ago and yet hasn't been able to apply it properly because of  corrupt human thoughts and ambitions.  Thus Allah says about such humans which unfortunately make up the majority in planet earth:

"Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth and the hills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it. And man assumed it. Lo! he hath proved a tyrant and a fool."  (33:72).
 
May the curse of Allah Almighty be on the skeptic community!  Makes me proud to curse the human mind that has no reservations mutating itself into some sort of unrecognizable lowlife creature.
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« Reply #3 on: November 03, 2014, 01:37:01 pm »

What a bloody-minded rascal that guy was!  His time in Hellfire will be no joke - a permanent torment.  Just cannot understand how such rogues can live up with their conscience.

Thanks for the information brother.  As I've always said, it's necessary to know how the minds of these degenerates work in order to recognize them at the quickest and set them aside like filth. 
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« Reply #4 on: November 06, 2014, 11:52:45 pm »

Aw, loads of thanks Sis Heb ..    I'm sure this is gonna be a perfect substitute for the piece you lost Sis Zaynab Smiley    And br.TS, your feedback on that peculiar Islamophobe was once again an eye-opener on how fast the IQ of our enemies is falling.  The skeptic website isn't even able to distinguish the vast difference between Monotheism and earthly democracy, and such are the folks are supposed to be the critics of Islam.

Political science being my major at university, this one was of particular interest to me.  I totally concur that when we uphold the Quran as the Institution that launched the concept of democracy, we do not allude to the distortions that frill this ideology today as maneuvered by the Western system where it's primarily used as a tool for manipulation, convenience, instigation of hype, indoctrination, incitement and fitnah.  Additionally, today's "democracy" in the non-Muslim world largely includes the spread of Islamophobia as one of its specific goals.  Since there exists a very thin line between free speech and hate speech, thus genuine democracy needs to have boundaries.  This implies that it needs to be utilized only from a constructive perspective.  Criticism must be constructive, not destructive.  Likewise, productive freedom of thoughts must be presented with respect, not in a disparaging or pooh-pooh manner. 

In my opinion, the culture and practice of free speech is not suited for the media which has turned into the most forceful weapon to inculcate the masses in the modern world.  Instead, only the people and the counsels (who vote or represent the voters in a parliament or its equivalent) must be granted such freedom to be used with respect and all seriousness, to speak on governmental policies - both its shortcomings as well as its achievements - and its impact on the society.  This will establish a steady flow of interaction between the government and the masses with productive and valuable assessments coming from both sides.  It must never be viewed as a pathway to create hostilities or trading diatribes.  That would be the surest way of corrupting the culture of free speech into a stimulus for counter-productive results and subsequently the society shifting from civilization to retrogression as is happening North America and Europe (aka West).

A question I would like to put here because I don't understand how historians claim that - why are the ancient Greek rulers dubbed as the supposed pioneers of democracy?  Weren't they largely an autocratic lot?
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« Reply #5 on: November 07, 2014, 08:00:12 am »

That's beautifully put Sister Ruhi.  You must have been a spectacular student in your uni days  Smiley   The fruitful nature of your thoughts rings a loud bell.  As we look around the globe today, so-called idealogues are on two extremes. As under Western regimes, the manipulation of democracy has distorted it into a useful toolkit for misinformation and implantation.  In dictatorial regimes all complaints against the government are completely muted often with harsh punishments.   The fine articulation with which you stated you views illustrates the true middle path and the utilization of an axiom in a way so that a society can derive its benefits, not its detriments; for indeed every positive concept if overstretched or utilized  parsimoniously  or not utilized at all is bound to have its downside.



A question I would like to put here because I don't understand how historians claim that - why are the ancient Greek rulers dubbed as the supposed pioneers of democracy?  Weren't they largely an autocratic lot?


Your question is just as insightful as your comments and very much worth a response for the benefit of our guests in particular. 

Modern historians often look upon the Greeks as the founders of democracy for two reasons - their lack of knowledge of the Quran or their bias against the Quran.  When they refer to the Greeks, they allude to Socrates.  But what Socrates said in approximately 400 BC was not in line with mutual consultation as underscored in the Noble Quran.  Instead Socrates' approach was combative rather than suggestive.  Greek politicians in that era were thoroughly domineering for whom the seat of power was symbolic of their birthright rather than a sense of responsibility or commitment to serving the people.  According to reports, Socrates harshly belittled the government of Athens for their ambitions exceeding their abilities by exposing their vices in public.   Thereafter, he was tried, found guilty of provoking the masses and put to death by poisoning.  His perception was right but his modus operandi was such that it gave rise to the fear of revolt in the minds of the powerful.  Of course that was an era of complete political autocracy with NO ideas of mutuality or reciprocity even in the remotest sense.  To initiate the process of transfer from autocracy to democracy, the first step must involve recommendation of mutual relations rather than confrontation which is bound to result in persecution by the ruling class.   Socrates prioritized his approach incorrectly and thus failed. His move primarily involved displeasure and rebellion which was not the invention of a system.  The Quran, on the other hand, while mentioning of "mutual consultation" constructs the system of democracy itself.  Revolt can be justified (which can be interpreted from the Verse of "Amr bin al Maruf" - 3:104) after all parleys have failed.
 
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« Reply #6 on: November 07, 2014, 08:48:58 am »



In my opinion, the culture and practice of free speech is not suited for the media which has turned into the most forceful weapon to inculcate the masses in the modern world.  Instead, only the people and the counsels (who vote or represent the voters in a parliament or its equivalent) must be granted such freedom to be used with respect and all seriousness, to speak on governmental policies - both its shortcomings as well as its achievements - and its impact on the society.  This will establish a steady flow of interaction between the government and the masses with productive and valuable assessments coming from both sides.  It must never be viewed as a pathway to create hostilities or trading diatribes.


 Thumbsup Thumbsup Thumbsup Thumbsup




Socrates prioritized his approach incorrectly and thus failed. His move primarily involved displeasure and rebellion which was not the invention of a system.  The Quran, on the other hand, while mentioning of "mutual consultation" constructs the system of democracy itself.  Revolt can be justified (which can be interpreted from the Verse of "Amr bin al Maruf" - 3:104) after all parleys have failed.

Precisely .. this is the essence of the difference between the Quranic concept and the approach of Socrates.  When we talk about peoples' governance, it implies laying the cornerstone of a system.  If the leaders start abusing that system then confrontation can be a later consequence, if all negotiations fail.  While the Noble Quran lays the foundation of that system, Socrates starts his ideology with confrontation which isn't the same as introducing a system.  That way there may have been more people prior to him who complained and rebelled against their corrupt rulers and met a similar fate.  But they cannot be viewed as architects of a political axiom.   Application of mutual consultation, followed by the conceptualization of protest and revolt (if consultation does not succeed) is very briefly summarized in the simple diagram below.

(Image not available unfortunately.  Photobucket has lost it).

Approximately half a million people lived in Athens when Greece was at its zenith in 350 plus BC.  Half of those inhabitants were slaves with no voting rights. Women had no voting rights either. This was nothing exceptional in those times.  All societies were the same, and there came many rebels like Socrates from time to time.  But the ideological structure to resolve such a problem was first announced by the Quran.
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« Reply #7 on: November 07, 2014, 09:12:30 am »

Many, many thanks for your appreciation my dear sister and brother.   

Both your additional inputs were so helpful along with that great and simple sketch - an excellent assistance to grasp the summary.
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« Reply #8 on: November 07, 2014, 09:14:51 am »

Pleasure reading all the additional contributions that have illuminated my mind twice as much on this topic. 

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« Reply #9 on: November 07, 2014, 09:18:14 am »

You're very welcomed sisters Ruhi and Heba.

@ Sister Heba, yes, your question on the diagram is absolutely right.  I should have added that myself  Smiley
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« Reply #10 on: November 07, 2014, 09:23:03 am »

Wonderful illustration brother TS.  It really explains everything in a nutshell.  Thanks to everyone starting with Sis Heba for writing the original post on my request despite her very busy schedule.

Allah bless all of you.
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« Reply #11 on: November 07, 2014, 09:26:30 am »

You're more than welcomed Sis  Smiley   As I said, it's a pleasure.  No problem at all.
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« Reply #12 on: November 07, 2014, 09:32:08 am »

Always welcomed Sister Zeynab. 
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« Reply #13 on: April 16, 2018, 11:16:17 pm »



 Smiley   Printing and preparing this topic for coming weekend's group discussion, InshAllah.
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« Reply #14 on: April 16, 2018, 11:17:45 pm »



O really?   Smiley    InshAllah, it will be a great session.   Ameen.
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