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Answering-Islam's FALSE claim of "mathematical error in hereditary law" of Quran


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Author Topic: Answering-Islam's FALSE claim of "mathematical error in hereditary law" of Quran  (Read 3190 times)
Heba E. Husseyn
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« on: February 08, 2015, 02:58:17 pm »

The heathens of Answering-Islam and WikiIslam sites have tried a failed attempt claiming that the Quranic Verses 4:11-12 elucidating the laws of inheritance are mathematically wrong and do not add up.

First let me put up the Quranic Verses 4:11-12 (Surah An-Nissa) concerning inheritance laws.

"Allah chargeth you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one (only) then the half. And to each of his parents a sixth of the inheritance, if he have a son; and if he have no son and his parents are his heirs, then to his mother appertaineth the third; and if he have brethren, then to his mother appertaineth the sixth, after any legacy he may have bequeathed, or debt (hath been paid). Your parents and your children: Ye know not which of them is nearer unto you in usefulness. It is an injunction from Allah. Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise."  4:11.

"And unto you belongeth a half of that which your wives leave, if they have no child; but if they have a child then unto you the fourth of that which they leave, after any legacy they may have bequeathed, or debt (they may have contracted, hath been paid). And unto them belongeth the fourth of that which ye leave if ye have no child, but if ye have a child then the eighth of that which ye leave, after any legacy ye may have bequeathed, or debt (ye may have contracted, hath been paid). And if a man or a woman have a distant heir (having left neither parent nor child), and he (or she) have a brother or a sister (only on the mother's side) then to each of them twain (the brother and the sister) the sixth, and if they be more than two, then they shall be sharers in the third, after any legacy that may have been bequeathed or debt (contracted) not injuring (the heirs by willing away more than a third of the heritage) hath been paid. A commandment from Allah. Allah is Knower, Indulgent."  4:12.


Now, I will quote below the childish criticism of the AI and WI kuffar which is hilarious.  Even a child with half a brain would not be as dumbwit as this. 

Quoting them -
"Mathematical Error in Hereditary Laws.

    Wife: 1/8 = 3/24,
    Daughters: 2/3 = 16/24,
    Father: 1/6 = 4/24,
    Mother: 1/6 = 4/24,
    Total = 27/24=1.125

The total does not equal to 1. This error can never be reconciled in any way."

Unquote -

Addressing AI and WI:  What the heck are you talking?  The denomination of "1" is never taken as a presumed total for calculating any distribution, and it's certainly never a presumed standard total for a legacy.  How on earth do you expect to calculate the distribution of inheritance without knowing the total assets to be divided among the heirs.  The fallacy arises because Answering Islam / WikiIslam's complete lack of mathematical knowledge.  How can you get the balance of the total without deducting the amount of bequest and the debt?  Are you completely out of your mind?  Even for a simple demonstration, you first need to pick a value for the estate prior to mathematical workings otherwise your workings are bound to be fallacious as in Wiki's case.  And Wiki is attributing its own mistakes to the Quran. 

So let us take a few examples demonstrating simple distributions of inheritances within families based on the figures of Quranic Verses 4:11-12 and then check the total of the break-up with the original value of the estate to verify for conformity.

EXAMPLE ONE:

A man who is a widower dies.  His modest estate is worth 100,000.  He leaves behind a son, a daughter and a brother.  He makes a bequest of 20,000 to his brother.  His total debt of 5,000 needs to be deducted from the value of his estate.  That makes the balance worth of his estate to 75,000.  Daughter gets half the share of the son out of 75,000 which would be 25,000 and son gets the remaining 50,000.  Now lets calculate the total and whether or not it tallies with the total worth of the estate.

Bequest       20,000
Debt             5,000
Daughter      25,000
Son             50,000

Total          100,000  --> original worth of the estate as mentioned above.

If there be 2 sons and 2 daughters with the same bequest and same debt, then from the balance of 75,000 each son would get 25,000 and each daughter would get 12,500.  Let's again check the total.

Bequest               20,000
Debt                     5,000
2 daughters          25,000   (12,500 each)
2 sons                 50,000   (25,000 each)

Total                  100,000  -->  original worth of the estate as mentioned above.


EXAMPLE TWO:

A wealthier man dies leaving an estate worth 450,000.  He leaves behind a son, 2 daughters, a wife and 2 sisters.  He makes a bequest of 15,000 for each of his 2 sisters making the total bequest to 30,000.  His total debts amount to 8,000.  Balance worth of estate after deducting the bequest and debt is 412,000.  The wife is entitled to one-eighth of that total, that is 51,500.  That leaves the balance of the estate at 360,500.  The 2 daughters are entitled to half the share of the son.  Half of 360,500 is 180,250 (total share of both daughters).  Thus, each of the 2 daughters get 90,125.  Balance is the son's share that is 360,500 minus 180,250 = 180,250 (exactly the amount shared by his 2 sisters).  Now let's total up the distribution to see if it tallies with the original worth of the estate which was 450,000.

Bequest               30,000
Debt                     8,000
Wife                    51,500
2 daughters         180,250  (90,125 each)
1 son                  180,250

Total                   450,000

Thus total solidly tallies with the original worth of the estate 450,000 as mentioned above.

If there were 3 or more sisters, then they would be sharers in two-third of the total of 360,500.  So, if there were 3 or more sisters, then we would need to calculate two-third of 360,500 which would be 240,332.  Hence 3 or more sisters would share from 240,332.  The son would get the remaining 120,167.  Similarly the original total value of the estate would add to 450,000.  You can do that calculation yourself. 

If there be 2 sons and 2 daughters, both sons get 225,312 (out of 360,500) that is 112,656 each.  Both daughters get the balance of 135,188.  Therefore each daughter gets 67,594.  Check the total.

Bequest              30,000
Debt                    8,000
Wife                   51,500
2 daughters        135,188  (67,594 each)
2 sons               225,312  (112,656 each)

Total                 450,000  -->  Total tallies completely with original worth of estate.


Answering-Islam and WikiIslam:  Learn you primary school maths before you talk next time!

And now .. some other important points to be kept in mind:

Remember, the figures mentioned in Verses 11 and 12 of Surah An-Nissa are to be taken after deducting the bequest (if any) left behind by the deceased and after the deduction of debt (if any).  The amount of bequest is not specified in the Quran. That depends on the will of the deceased.  However it's to be understood that a bequest shouldn't be unfair which might completely deprive the other heirs.  This would particularly apply in the cases of the wealthy who leave behind a substantial estate.   

It's also to be understood that these figures mentioned in the Noble Quran are the standard principles that highlight the basic framework of Islamic inheritance laws.  It's important to know that exceptional situations can (and do) occur concerning the number of heirs and their varying situations that aren't spelt out in Verses 4:11-12.  In all such cases a Muslim is by all means allowed to make suitable decisions exercising their rationale with the help of the standard guidelines in Verses 4:11-12 and the spirit of justice/fairness as also highlighted throughout the Quran. For example, a man of modest means dies leaving behind two sons and an asset worth 50,000.  One of his sons has a successful career having his own independent assets worth 200,000.  The other son is not so fortunate.  He is virtually penniless, toils with hard labor, struggles to pay his daily expenses with a meager saving that might not be enough even to pay a bill for a medical emergency.  In such a case, the father may decide to give his entire asset of 50,000 as a gift to his son who is financially stretched and he is allowed to do so.  It certainly sounds very acceptable in the light of Quranic principles of justice, kindness and fair play.  The final Judgment is up to Allah Almighty to be dispensed in the Hereafter.  One will have to wait for that with patience and silence. 

Yet there are far more complicated legacies in cases of bigger families and there are any number of excellent legal experts out there who calculate the distribution of inheritances on the lines of Quranic figures, accurate to the last penny.   

The very important reason why according to the Quranic Law of Inheritance, sons get twice the share of daughters, is because sons have plenty of financial responsibilities, unlike daughters.  These responsibilities include meeting all expenses of their marriage including dowry, supporting their wives and children, supporting elderly parents and dependent siblings.  Contrary to this, daughters have no such financial burdens.  Any portion of wealth she inherits or earns is her personal possession with which she's not obligated to support her dependents, unless she volunteers to do so.  Hence, those Muslim men who have gotten deviated enough to overrule the Quranic dictate concerning their financial duties, must also voluntarily forgo to claim double the share of inheritance.   After all, Allah Almighty has commanded to give males twice the share of females with a specific reason.  If some men are not able to handle that specific reason, they cannot simply dismiss their responsibility and move on without any adjustments.  That would be getting the cake and eating it too.  It would disrupt the entire balance of the structure of this law established by Allah.
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Zeynab
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« Reply #1 on: October 14, 2016, 12:42:09 am »

Beautifully elucidated from start to finish.  Many thanks dear Sister Heba.  I doubt if a dark-minded lot like AI would even have the basic acumen to grasp a fraction of this post other than clinging to their 2-penny-worth rants with neither logic nor decency of intent. 
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« Reply #2 on: November 22, 2016, 05:38:35 am »

Many thanks Sister Heba.  Wonderfully explained.  I took a print out of it yesterday  ... our discussion day .. the inheritance law in the Quran was the topic.  Everyone found your piece very helpful.  Alhumdulilah.
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« Reply #3 on: November 23, 2016, 04:41:52 am »

Many thanks sister and brother.  I'm so glad it helped all of you br. TS. 
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« Reply #4 on: July 15, 2018, 11:14:30 pm »



As-Salam Alaykum Sisters.  Need your feedback.

It's about an old friend of my mom.  She's a single old lady, never married, who recently suffered a heart attack and she's finally making a will.  She wants it in accordance with the Quran and has sought our help for information. We're trying to give her the most accurate guidelines we can from the Quranic perspective.

Her total assets approximately $100,000.  This elderly lady has no parents and of course no children, just 2 brothers (as far as I know, they're married).  She isn't at all close to her brothers as they never cared for her.  She's quite out of touch with them.  She has an adult niece (daughter of one of the brothers), the only member of her surviving family who cares for her aunt very much and keeps in touch regularly.  And this niece is also financially not too well off compared to her father and uncle (the old lady's brothers) who are doing much better.  The elderly lady is very fond of the niece and wants to give the major portion of the inheritance to her.  Additionally she wants to give a bequest of $5,000 to charity.  She has no debts, Alhumdulilah. 

Can any of you find a suitable solution on inheritance from the Quran so the lady can make her last will accordingly?    My dad pointed out the last portion of Verse 4:12, quote:

"And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from Allah , and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing. "   4.12  (Sahih International translation).

Hence in this case her two brothers are to get one-sixth each of her asset, right?   Is this to be calculated after deducting her bequest to her niece and the charity?  That is, does it mean one-third from what's left after bequest?


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« Reply #5 on: July 15, 2018, 11:55:44 pm »



Walaikum As-salam brother TS.   Well, generally yes, the standard will as determined by Allah Almighty is meant to be calculated - according to the figures given by Him - after deductions of bequests and payments of debts.  However, this particular case as you stated, is a bit out of the ordinary.  The elderly lady evidently wants her niece to be the prime inheritor.  The lady's brothers are apparently being given a sixth each of the asset because it's a Quranic injunction.

So, in my opinion, it can be approached in two ways. 

First, let her decide on the amount of bequest to her niece plus as you said, she already decided 5,000 to charity.  While making the bequest to her niece plus the 5,000 to charity, she would need to calculate so that at least one-sixth x 2 is left to be given to the brothers.   So, one-sixth of 100,000 would be 16,666 for each brother, that is, 33,333 for both.  So the total bequest must not exceed 66,667.  With 5,000 given to charity, the bequest for the niece would be approximately 61,667.   Right?

OR, alternatively, calculate one-sixth x 2 of 100,000 before bequest.  It would be 33,333.   Remaining would be 66,667.  It comes to the same.

This is how I figure it out.  Try to get a few other opinions too, in case there's some calculation oversight on my part.   Allah forgive.

 

 
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« Reply #6 on: July 16, 2018, 12:18:24 am »


Walaikum Salaam dear brother and sister.  Sis Heba, your computation sounds valid to me.  Very neatly projected.  Alhumdulilah.  I'm also going through a similar predicament on deciding my will, in that, I need to do some similar mathematical computations.  If you don't mind, I'll get in touch with you on email with the figures. 

Having a will ready at all times is really important as we never know when His call may come suddenly.  Those folks who have all loving members within their family are so lucky.  With modern materialism and all its competitiveness and covetousness, we often end up with brothers and sisters who don't care ... neither for Allah Almighty nor for us ... but Allah Almighty is so Merciful.  He never wants to leave anyone hurt so He has commanded that everyone must get a share.  I wonder if it even occurs to those folks to thank Allah for His bountiful decision of fixing a legal share for them who didn't fulfill their responsibilities towards their loved ones.  And of course Allah is fully aware of their missteps.  But he wants us to give even to the wrong doers a share so that we don't spoil our book of record by indulging in similar acts of negligence and injustice as they did towards us.
 

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« Reply #7 on: July 16, 2018, 12:46:06 am »



By all means feel free to email me dear sis.  You've stated it very humbly and rationally.  As Allah says in the Glorious Quran, "And the bounty of thy Lord can never be walled up."    I perfectly understand what you meant sister.  Sometimes one's siblings can be insensitive, callous and utterly inconsiderate.  They are quick to want their share of lollipops but they are doused in self-centrism, totally focused on themselves while dumping all family responsibilities including caring for elderly parents on a single helpless sibling.   I'm aware, these things happen all the time in today's world.  And then someone else might come by - e.g. a niece or a nephew or an aunt or an uncle - who may care for us a lot more.  And then it hurts to give them as much (or less) than the callous siblings who did nothing.  But Allah is NOT unaware of the selfishness of such siblings.  He wants us to fulfill our earthly duties as persons who are just and ethical.  The selfish ones may get what they didn't work for in this world, but Allah won't let them get off scott free in the next world.    Read the following Verses from Surah Al-Isra which explain it all.  Just so lovely! 

"Whoso desires that (life) which hastens away, We hasten for him therein what We will for whom We please. And afterward We have appointed for him hell; he will endure the heat thereof, condemned, rejected.   But whoever desires the Hereafter and exerts the effort due to it while he is a believer - it is those whose effort is ever appreciated (by Allah).   Each do We supply, both these and those, from the bounty of your Rab.   And the bounty of your Rab can never be walled up."  (17:18-20)  Al-Isra.


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« Reply #8 on: July 16, 2018, 12:48:47 am »



Many thanks sister Heba.  InshAllah, I will get in touch on email. 

As always, what you mentioned made perfect sense.

All praise be to The Almighty, The Greatest.



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« Reply #9 on: July 16, 2018, 12:58:46 am »



Salams folks.  So nice to read all this. 

Furthermore, if the elderly lady wants to give to her niece who's a daughter of one of her brothers, a larger chunk, in that case she's not giving away her assets to an outsider.  She giving it into the same family, to the daughter instead of the father, and any gain acquired by children is a gain for parents too.  Her parents can now spend more of their savings on themselves as their daughter already got quite a bit from her aunt.  The daughter would also be in a better position to help her parents financially, if they ever needed any money.  So it's within the same family, right?   And after all, it's the niece who cared while the others didn't.  Divine Justice is much too perfect.  It can never overlook such issues.


   
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« Reply #10 on: July 16, 2018, 01:00:21 am »


True, a thoughtful point Sister Ruhi.
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« Reply #11 on: July 16, 2018, 01:12:34 am »

Shukran immensely for the quick response Sister Heba and all the additional input and opinions, Sisters Zeynab and Ruhi.   The read is uncomplicated and informative.   I'll show it to my folks.   You sound right Sister Heba.   If I get any more feedback from other sources, I'll put it up too, InshAllah.   
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« Reply #12 on: July 17, 2018, 06:54:01 am »


Big welcome br. TS.   If I find any other views or thoughts on this Verse, I too will post them here.


Sister Ruhi .. very valid points.

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« Reply #13 on: July 28, 2018, 11:40:00 pm »



Brother NTS, I've got some more info from the last Verse of the same Surah An-Nissa which I'm studying in comparison to Verse 4:12.  Will put it up very soon InshAllah. 
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« Reply #14 on: July 28, 2018, 11:43:27 pm »



So very kind of you Sister Heba.   We would need your additional input a.s.a.p. as that lady visited us day before yesterday and we presented what you said.  She hasn't yet made her final will.  We told her to hold it for a little while, in case we find out something more through the Quran. 
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