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History of Mesaharati ( مسحراتى ) – the dawn caller in Ramadan


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Zeynab
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« on: September 24, 2018, 05:39:34 am »





Artwork of a medieval era Mesaharati.


Mesaharati or the dawn caller is a public waker for Sahoor and the Fajr prayer during the month of Ramadan.   Sahoor is the pre-dawn meal in Ramadan before fasting begins at dawn, shortly before the start of a new day.  Traditionally, this is one of the oldest and most deep rooted customs of the blessed month of Ramadan.  It makes Ramadan more joyous for Muslims.

The first Mesaharati or drum holder was Bilal Bin Rabah, a friend of Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) in Medinah.   He walked with his drum along the streets of Medinah in pre-dawn hours to wake up believers for Sahoor. 

Mesaharati was synonymous with Ramadan similar to the decoration of Ramadan lamps.  In medieval Mecca the imam of the mosque would climb on the minaret a couple of hours before Fajr, holding a lamp (or lantern) and calling for the residents of the neighborhood to wake up for the Sahoor meal.  Even if the people couldn't see or hear him, they could see the light he held.  That's how the decorative custom of lamps symbolic of Ramadan came about and exists until the present.



In medieval Mecca the imam of the mosque would climb on the minaret at pre-dawn hours holding a lantern and calling for people to wake up for the Sahoor meal.  Even if the people couldn't see or hear him, they could see the light he held.  That's how the decorative custom of lanterns symbolic of Ramadan came about which exists until the present.

Approximately three hours after Iftar and the Tarawih prayers, was the time for all Mesahratiyah  to start their Ramadan rounds in their respective neighborhoods.  It was necessary for the Mesaharati to be a healthy person as he had to walk long distances across an entire neighborhood and back.   He also needed to have a loud and clear voice.

Information coming from the ancestors of Muslims currently living in Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Morocco tells us that the more elaborate idea of Al-Mesaharati emerged in the era of the Fatamids in 909 A.D. when the Mesaharati used to walk the streets of Cairo holding a small tebla-like drum and tapping it with a piece of leather or wood.  He was often accompanied by his children holding a lamp to light the way so he could comfortably sing his distinctive calls.    Gradually the tradition grew more interesting.  Just two hours prior to Sahoor, dressed in a jalebiya and a headcover and holding a drum in his hand, the Mesaharati woke people by mentioning their names to give a more personal touch to his voluntary assignment.  They would also often knock on peoples' doors to wake them. Some years later the Mesaharati began chanting lines of religious songs and simultaneously beat the drum; that felt like a sweeter way of waking up the neighborhood.   Whenever the Mesaharati began their rounds, children of the neighborhood would find it exciting and rush towards the drum beater.  Some children would carry lanterns to light the path of the Mesaharati as there was no electricity those days and thus no street lights.

"Wake up sleepers, praise Allah" called the Mesaharati as he strolled through the streets before dawn, beating his drum.   There were other attractive chants, such as “catch the good month before it goes away!”    Other well-known phrases often chanted by the Mesaharati: “Sabbahak Allah bil ridha wa alnaeem” (May Allah wake you with satisfaction and bliss) and “Ya nayem wahhid Aldayem” (Sleeping, praise the Permanent Allah).

Unlike nowadays when Muslims often spend hours watching television, using their laptops or texting on their cell phones after Tarawih, in the early years of Islam they slept soon after the Tarawih prayers.  With no alarm clocks to awaken them at pre-dawn, the Mesaharati’s presence was a  necessity otherwise many would oversleep and miss Sahoor.  But knowing that the Mesaharati would be there at the right time, they would sleep soundly without any worries. The Mesaharati would stand under the window or balcony of each house, calling everyone by name until he heard a response before moving to the next house.  Some neighbors would gladly express their gratitude during each pre-dawn call of the Mesaharati by wrapping a coin in a piece of paper and dropping it down to him.

The Mesaharati's job would be voluntary, out of kindness of their hearts, with no assured payments.   But the people always paid him something.  When the blessed month of Ramadan came to an end and the celebrations of Eid Al-Fitr began, the Mesaharati received gifts of money and food from people to express gratitude for his services during the blessed month.

Their voluntary task was considered one of the most prestigious in all medieval Muslim societies, having the same status as the “omdah” or mayor of the city.  In some families it was an inherited profession and the drums they carried were passed on from great-grandparents to their descendants. 

Traditionally, Mesahratiyah are usually men.    But in modern times, rarely women too volunteer for this interesting job in the blessed month.  The most recent story of a lady Mesaharati is that of Dalal Abdel Kader who belongs to a humble middle-class family of Cairo.  She opted for it on the footsteps of her two late brothers who were very popular Mesahratiyah of their neighborhoods.  Dalal recalls the evening when one of her brothers stepped out for the first time as a Mesaharati, wearing his best clothes and perfume.  She carries the same drum that belonged to him and emotionally remembers the beautiful spiritual songs he sung in praise of The Almighty.

It's understandable for residents of every neighborhood to feel they need to know and trust the man to allow him to walk their streets late at night.  But back in those days life was different mainly because of the aspect of trust.  The rate of street crimes was next to zero.  Everyone in every neighborhood trusted the other.  They felt safe walking the streets after dark.  Each neighbor could count on the help of another, if needed.  Residents of some neighborhoods invited the Mesaharati inside their homes to eat Sahoor with them.  In Syria every Mesaharati had strong connections with their neighborhood. People trusted him to deliver food and money to those whom they knew were in need.   

The only security risk were stray dogs; rarely some behaved aggressively.   The stick which the Mesaharati carried for his drum was sometimes used to scare away barking dogs with hand swinging gestures.  That's as far as safety concerns went.

Unfortunately the need for a Mesaharati has gradually declined since the past half a century primarily because of technology - alarm clocks, radios, televisions, cell phone alarms.  Construction of highrise residential apartments in developing cities and the use of air conditioners have made it harder to hear the Mesaharati’s voice.   Their voices were so clearly audible in medieval times as they walked by small homes of close-knit neighborhoods.   Moreover, in sprawling over-crowded modern cities with high crime rates and unruly traffic, the Mesaharati often fears for their safety, that they may not be able to walk the busy streets without being harmed.

In modern Pakistan - a country considerably lacking in true Islamic traditions - no one would even know the definition of the term “Mesaharati.”  They simply refer to the dawn caller as the "dhol wala" (the drum guy).  They are unknown members of the community, neither trusted nor respected.  Some are even treated with disdain, viewed as greedy volunteers  which unfortunately is true of several of them in Pakistan.  They show up for a short while on just a few nights of the entire month but assertively demand money for the whole month during Eid-al-Fitr.  Most neighbors are unwilling to pay them. 

That’s how much times have changed!   

But despite the changing times, in the northern Arab world and Iran, the Mehsaharati remains an inseparable part of the blessed month of Ramadan.




A Mesaharati in Cairo visiting a neighborhood with Ramadan decor at dawn, riding on a donkey.  Many mesaharatis are greeted with respect by residents of the neighborhoods. 



Mesaharatiyah in a Ramadan-decorated neighborhood of Jerusalem. 



Lady Mesaharati, Dalal Abdel Kadir, in Cairo - before Sahoor time walking through her neighborhood as the children gather around her.


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« Reply #1 on: September 25, 2018, 01:38:15 am »



SubhanAllah .. MashAllah, I so much enjoyed reading this.  Reminds me of the stories I hear from my dad.  One of his great-grand uncles, a very humble man of modest means, was a mesaharati in a small and beautiful Syrian neighborhood.  In those days working hours were shortened greatly during Ramadan.  Work started late and finished soon.  So he could go to work plus also do his mesaharati duty at night.  Despite his modest means, he didn't care for money; was only interested in helping neighbors so they don't miss sahoor for there were no alarm clocks to awaken them.  Yet, at the end of Ramadan on Eid-al-Fitr day, his little courtyard would be inundated with gifts of cooked food and money as tips in colored envelopes.  Such wonderful days .. and now look where we are.  Everyone speaks of the convenience of modern times but where's the happiness which our ancestors had?

Mesaharati tradition flourished in Syria enough to enjoy until pre war period.  But now .... I suppose it's all over  Sad

In Palestine and Egypt this tradition is still largely alive particularly in old Jerusalem city (despite occupation) and Cairo as shown in the images posted.

Great article Sister Zeynab. 

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« Reply #2 on: September 29, 2018, 02:45:45 am »



Absolutely mesmerizing post sis!   Love it.   It's so heartening to watch beautiful Ramadan, month of the Noble Quran, as a month to celebrate with such humility and dignity.   Unfortunately in Pakistan Ramadan is only synonymous with food and those nut-heads simply look forward to Eid for celebration and the superficial-minds of Pak women spending a fortune on weird clothing.

All images are soooo lovely!   I read of Dalal Abdel-Kadir last Ramadan.  Her story is sad, reminiscing her late brother, yet she cheers herself taking up the same task as he did.  May Allah Almighty reward both of them in the Hereafter.  Ameen.  I especially like that one on the young Mesaharatys in east Jerusalem.  They have replaced tambourines with the drum.  That Jerusalem neighborhood looks so wonderfully surreal taking one back to the serene medieval times.  Is this neighborhood covered from above, somewhat like the old souqs?


...... Reminds me of the stories I hear from my dad.  One of his great-grand uncles, a very humble man of modest means, was a mesaharati in a small and beautiful Syrian neighborhood.

So heart-warming to learn that brother! Smiley   I'm sure your dad and his family must be having lovely stories to tell all of you, coming from his respected grands. 

You're absolutely right sis Zeynab.  In Pakistan, apart from not knowing the term "mesaharaty," this profession is ridiculed and despised.  Also, the dhol walas of Pakistan have done little to earn respect.  I don't know what the situation is now; some years ago they were to an extent a security risk.  A dhol wala once entered the compound of my aunt's house by opening the gate about one hour before the end of Sahoor. He sat down on the porch silently, periodically striking the drum once or twice. Her 2 sons and her nephew along with their servant went out to tell him to leave.  They said he seemed to be in a daze, not quite alert nor in his senses.  They had to tell him repeatedly to move out, until he finally stood up without speaking and slowly walked out of the gate.  From then onward, they got a big lock and would put that on the gate every evening after 10 p.m.   They continued doing that even after the month of Ramadan.



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« Reply #3 on: September 29, 2018, 08:51:05 pm »


Thanks brother and sister.  I so much appreciate your appreciation Smiley 

Brother TS, me delighted to read your input on your great-grand uncle  Smiley Smiley
Allah bless. 

Sister Ruhi .. that incident you mentioned about the dhol wala gate-crashing your aunt's house is weird but it doesn't surprise me.  Such things surely happen in Pakistan.  I would not call these folks "Mesaharati" by any stretch of my imagination.   They are just suspicious loiterers looking for tips and some free food.  Majority of them don't even reside in the neighborhood they walk.   They pick different neighborhoods every evening, thus in each neighborhood they don't show up more than few times in the month of Ramadan.  Just as well they don't, no one misses them either.  This guy you mentioned sounds like a dumb thief on dope.  Your aunt's folks did well kicking him out.

In countries like Egypt, Syria, Palestine etc. it's a very different story and a beautiful one as displayed in the images.  Yes, in modern times the Mesaharatiyah are mostly young men in Palestine, replacing the drum with tambourine.  Tambourine sounds more melodious and is a more gentle awakener.   Some Jerusalem neighborhood lanes are covered but not all.  I think the one in this image is covered but can't confirm as the top portion of the image isn't visible.   All of Jerusalem neighborhoods are grand medieval settings.  The bloody occupying Zionists have ruined everything.




   
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« Reply #4 on: September 30, 2018, 01:37:45 am »



SubhanAllah!  Love this post  Smiley   Wonderful piece Sis Zeynab.

Br. TS, how heartening!  Takes me too down the ancestral memory lane  Cheesy  like the smell of freshly baked apple pie reminiscent of the aromas from granny's kitchen  Cheesy Cheesy   And families were big those days.  My mom has tons of stories of her grand aunts and great-grand aunts getting the jalabiya ready for their husbands who would set off on their rounds a couple of hours after Isha or tarawih prayers.  Those volunteers were the honor of their neighborhood, folks of true repute. 

Reading Sister Ruhi's story, I was more than shocked to learn how this dignified and cheerful medieval tradition has been distorted in Pakistan.  Sister Zeynab is right.  Such ones are not Mesaharatiya.  They are people with suspicious designs on the residents of neighborhoods.   If a society has no knowledge of a certain culture, it's better to ignore it than to distort it this way.
 

 
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« Reply #5 on: September 30, 2018, 01:49:05 am »



Thanks a billion Sis Heba  Smiley   



.... Takes me too down the ancestral memory lane  Cheesy  like the smell of freshly baked apple pie reminiscent of the aromas from granny's kitchen  Cheesy Cheesy   And families were big those days.  My mom has tons of stories of her grand aunts and great-grand aunts getting the jalabiya ready for their husbands who would set off on their rounds a couple of hours after Isha or tarawih prayers. 
 

Sounds wonderful to say the least  Smiley



 Those volunteers were the honor of their neighborhood, folks of true repute. 
 

Exactly .....



... I was more than shocked to learn how this dignified and cheerful medieval tradition has been distorted in Pakistan.  ...   If a society has no knowledge of a certain culture, it's better to ignore it than to distort it this way.

I couldn't agree more, Sister Heba.

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« Reply #6 on: September 30, 2018, 02:03:25 am »



Some more very heartwarming images of modern Mesaharatiyah.



These 2 mesaharatiya are the same one whose pics are posted in the original post in Jerusalem neighborhood.  As they walk by, neighbors step out of their homes to offer them a cup a sahoor tea. 



Here's another one in old town Jerusalem of 3 young Palestinian boys wearing their best clothes holding lanterns and their drummer following them.



And look at this.  The caption explains it all.  Sister Ruhi is right.  Nowadays Muslims look upon Ramadan listlessly as a tough ritual of simply keeping your stomach empty until evening and impatiently wait for celebration on the 1st of Shawal.   They forget, the real celebration is Ramadan itself, to observe the month of the Noble Quran with happiness and cheer as we continue to worship Allah, The One and Only. 

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« Reply #7 on: September 30, 2018, 02:20:54 am »




That Jerusalem neighborhood looks so wonderfully surreal taking one back to the serene medieval times.  Is this neighborhood covered from above, somewhat like the old souqs? 

Yes Sister Ruhi, I'm quite sure all those neighborhoods shown in Jerusalem are covered from above.   The typical historical narrow pathways in neighborhoods and souqs of Palestine, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon were always covered.  The open  neighborhoods had wider walkways as shown in the pic below, for example.


This is the old Palestinian town of Bethlehem in Jerusalem just a few years prior to the world's biggest robbery - the Khazar-Ashkenazi Zionist occupation of Palestine .. Europeans calling themselves "Semites."  LMFAO.

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« Reply #8 on: September 30, 2018, 02:32:10 am »



MashAllah ... what gorgeous pics!   Those three youngsters holding lanterns look hardly older than school boys ... so apparently educated from good families.  And that image of Bethlehem is sooo lovely.   The pirated semites robbed it.

I think the one of old Jerusalem from Electronic Intifada is narrowly open from above, ha?  .... that's why the path is also broader compared to the other image. 




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« Reply #9 on: September 30, 2018, 02:35:09 am »


Yes Sister Heba, that one is clearly open from above.
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« Reply #10 on: September 30, 2018, 03:01:48 pm »



SubhanAllah, fabulous images.  Thanks for putting them up brother.
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« Reply #11 on: April 25, 2019, 10:37:01 pm »



As the blessed month of Ramadan 2019 approaches, a bit of addition on this topic.


A neighborhood in Morocco on Eid-al-Fitr where the nafar (meshsaharati or dawn caller playing a bugle-like
musical instrument) goes to collect gifts of money or food.



The Mesaharati has a long history also in the North African Muslim country of Morocco, namely the neighborhoods of Rabat, Marrakech and Fez.

During Ramadan nights, when Morocco’s streets enjoy a mood filled with calm and serenity, the tebbal drummers and nafar bugle players go through the streets playing their instruments to wake up people for Suhoor.

Tarija is the Moroccan clay tambourine, the qarqaba is a Moroccan metal castanet and the Moroccan wind instrument (like a bugle) is called a nafar.  These are the main musical instruments played by the mesaharati (dawn caller) in Morocco, often viewed  as Morocco's nocturnal tours to wake-up families at sahoor (dawn meal in the blessed month of Ramadan).

In the old days, the tebbal and nafar were the harbingers of the advent of the blessed month. After the Isha prayer on the last day of the Hijri month of Shaban, they made their appearance from the top of the mosque minarets to perform melodies announcing the arrival of the month of fasting.   The tebbal and nafar usually play together, each complimenting the rhythm of the other.

In medieval times, the tebbal (drummers) were officially recognized as wake-up callers for the last meal before the fast. They crisscrossed the neighborhoods wearing their traditional robes called gandora and slippers, drumming on their instrument in a scene that may remind many as a real-life portrayal of the mythical era of Arabian Nights.   That was the depth of the aura spread across by the presence and the music of the tebbal and the nafar.  This delectable show was repeated every night of the sacred month until the day of Eid al Fitr when the drummers would visit neighborhood homes where they received gifts of money and special food as token of gratitude for the services they rendered to the fasting community for a month.  People said "Our mothers and wives could not do without the services of the tebbal and nafar to get the sahour meal ready on time; they were just awakening all night." 

Many Moroccans today have been tebbals and nafars for decades.  They do travel the neighborhood streets of Fez, Marrakech and Rabat early dawn for their livelihood during the month of Ramadan.  But they are also putting in their best effort to preserve a beautiful historical tradition of the Islamic world.  They presently lament that this fine tradition has fallen into oblivion or shrunk in the neighborhoods and medinas because of the invasion of modernity and new technologies.  But even at present, the tebbals and nafars who are selected for this voluntary work every Ramadan are well-known and respected persons within their community. They play a very important role in preserving this very popular social practice loved in the Islamic world for centuries.  People still wait for a nafar or a tebbal to pass through the streets during the month of Ramadan, early morning.

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« Reply #12 on: April 25, 2019, 10:44:26 pm »



So lovely.  SubhanAllah, Alhumdulilah.

And I so much love that piece of art of medieval Morocco neighborhood.  May I please borrow it for putting it on our MV Pinterest board?


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« Reply #13 on: April 25, 2019, 10:46:23 pm »



Of course sister.   No need to ask .........  Smiley
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« Reply #14 on: April 26, 2019, 07:58:56 pm »



Great read brother TS.  The image is wonderful except that there looks to be one gaffe out there.  That woman in white with a kid at the corner is wearing a wide brimmed sun hat which is Mexican rather than Moroccan.  Particularly in those days no one wore it in Morocco.  Who is the artist?

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