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Rare architecture of rock-cut cave homes


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N. Truth Seeker
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« on: December 21, 2020, 01:06:27 pm »





Rock carved cave homes in East Azerbaijan province of Iran



Rock carved cave homes in Turkey, Cappadocia



This is informative and interesting for history lovers.

In Iran and Turkey these cave homes were built 800 years ago, primarily for the purpose of defense against the Mongol invaders. 

The strange cone formations of the rocks are likely the result of volcanic ash and debris spewed by eruptions and hardened over a period of centuries or millenniums in spike- shaped rocks.  In the 13th century during the rule of the Khwarazems in Iran, a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled from 1077 to 1231, the savage Mongols invaded both Iran as well as the Abbasid rule in Iraq with its capital in Baghdad.  The destruction left behind was immense.

In Iran the cave homes are located in the rural surroundings close to the city of Tabriz in north-west of the country in East Azerbaijan province.

The Mongols - a common nuisance - also invaded Anatolia (Turkey) in early 1240s.  Identical cave homes are also found in the Turkish town of Cappadocia in the heart of Turkey approximately 180 miles south-east of Ankara.  

All of these cave homes in the region were built inside the ancient rocks approximately between the years 1230s and 1240s by people fleeing the Mongol invasions and taking protection in the caves that were suitable places of refuge.  Mongols were defeated in Turkey in 1243 by the Seljuqs.  The Ottoman Empire was established in 1299 by Osman Ghazi.

Even after the Mongols were driven out, many of the refugees continued living in these cave homes.  

Gradually the rock carved cave homes were renovated and expanded a few storeys higher to accommodate larger families.   Most cave homes were two, three or four storeys high.   In the middle ages, the first floor was used for housing animals - horses, camels, mules, donkeys, cattle and sheep.   Second and third floors were used as living spaces by families.   Fourth floor was reserved for storage.  Many of the cone shaped rocks with cave homes were also connected through tunnels.   All such developments gradually came about as the residents continued residing there.  Built inside the rocks, these cave homes were also suitable for the climate of the region with severe long winters and moderate short summers.

Rock homes of Iran and Turkey are often erroneously thought to have existed since ancient times in the BC era.  This presumption is wrong.  Though the cone shaped rocks did exist since ancient times thousands of years in the past, not the rock homes which were built approximately 800 years ago.   

Some of the rock-carved homes are presently seen to have several modern amenities like contemporary furniture, electricity, gas, televisions, telephones etc.  The pristine ones are popular tourist attractions. 




A closer view of the old rock carved homes



13th century rock carved homes, inside view



A renovated rock carved home from old to modern times. Amazing!



Interior of a modern rock carved home, renovated from old


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Zeynab
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« Reply #1 on: December 21, 2020, 01:24:49 pm »




Very, very interesting. A beauty of its own kind, awesome!  Took me right down the memory lane.  I can understand their suitability during medieval invasions by the Mongols .. and also suitable for the weather, you're right. 

 
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« Reply #2 on: December 21, 2020, 01:30:31 pm »



Masterpieces of history.   The Noble Quran states about some people in ancient times like these.  The Quran mentions of the people of Samood how they would hew homes in mountains and hills which made them very proud of their skills.

"And remember how He made you viceroys after A'ad and gave you station in the earth. You choose castles in the plains and hew the mountains into dwellings. So remember (all) the bounties of Allah and do not evil, making mischief in the earth."  7:74  Al-Araf. 


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N. Truth Seeker
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« Reply #3 on: December 21, 2020, 01:35:33 pm »



Thank you Sister Zeynab.

Sister Ruhi, yes exactly, the Quran mentions that ....  

Btw, those ancient, prehistoric Samoodian homes as stated in the Quran are most likely in a place called Al-Hijr which is also the name of the 15th Surah of the Noble Quran.  It's the archaeological site, Madain Saleh, in the Arabian peninsula protected under World Heritage Site.   "Al-Hijr" literally means 'The Rocky Tract.'


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« Reply #4 on: December 21, 2020, 01:39:08 pm »



Alhumdulilah !!  ..
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Heba E. Husseyn
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« Reply #5 on: December 21, 2020, 01:42:52 pm »



Mash'Allah, pretty extra-ordinary.  And the Noble Quran is so full of prophecies.   Subhan'Allah, ya Rab.

With rock roofs, I suppose these homes would never experience the problem of leaking ceilings no matter how much it rained or snowed. 


 
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« Reply #6 on: December 21, 2020, 01:45:29 pm »



Alhumdulilah .....


Yes Sister Heba, I too think the roofs must have been tough as ever and also with plenty of natural sound proofing.


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« Reply #7 on: December 21, 2020, 01:46:27 pm »



True .....
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