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The 4 months of Hajj and explanation of Surah Al-Fajr


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4 months of Hajj, and Surah Al-Fajr.
July 12, 2021, 05:44:36 am Heba E. Husseyn: As we enter the month of Dhul Hijjah 1442, please read what the Great Quran says about Hajj.  Also visit the related links at the end of the same post to learn more.
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Zainab_M
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« on: July 16, 2021, 06:55:54 am »



As-Salaam Alaikum dear folks.

Hajj to be performed during 4 months, not just on the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah:

With reference to our following discussions earlier, nearly 5 years ago, in this thread .....



As-Salam Alaykum everyone.

There's a very relevant point mentioned in Quran-alone site "Quran-Islam.org-True Islam" which needs to be discussed.   I thought of continuing in this thread so all info on Hajj can be found under a single thread for the convenience of our readers.

Original of Verse 9:36 in Arabic:

إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ۚ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنْفُسَكُمْ ۚ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

"Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him]."  (Verse 9:36)

In Verse 9:36 the word on focus is "hurum" or "hurumun."   According to Quran-alone site the meaning of "humum" is not 'sacred' as translated by all translators including Haleem.  They claim "hurum" is the plural of "haram" and in Verse 9:36 the word implies "to abstain."  Thus the explanation goes as, there are 12 months in a year out of which 4 months are for abstinence from wars, unless in self defense.

Then comes Verse 2:197 where another point needs to be viewed.

Original of Verse 2:197 in Arabic:

الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَعْلُومَاتٌ ۚ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

"The pilgrimage takes place during the prescribed months.
There should be no indecent speech, misbehaviour, or quarrelling
for anyone undertaking the pilgrimage– whatever good you do, God
is well aware of it." (2:197)  (translation Haleem)

"(For) the Hajj (are) months well known, ...... "    (2:197)  (translation Corpus Quran)


In this Verse 2:197 we need to focus on the word "months" which is plural in both translations above.  It's original in Arabic of Verse 2:197 would be "ashhurun."  We can be sure "ashhurun" is plural as grammatically Corpus Quran defines it as "nominative masculine plural indefinite noun."  The reason why the Quran mentions "months"and not 'month' is because there are 4 months that are "hurum" as already studied in Verse 9:36.

Therefore according to Quran-Islam.org., it's not necessary to restrict Hajj only during the month of Zul Hijja, rather it can be performed during any of those 4 months. Contrary to that, our jurists have ruled Hajj to be performed only in month of Zul Hijja and that too, not the whole month of Zul Hijja but just the first 10 days.  According to this website, the concept of only Zul Hijja as the month of pilgrimage, and that too the first 10 days, comes from the Hadith institution.  The website also clarifies that these 4 months aren't defined as "sacred" in the Quran, rather they are defined as months of 'abstinence' (that is, abstinence from war).

Those folks sound Quranically correct.  I personally think so.  Please give me your feedback.

Here is the above original post in this thread by Br. TS.


I agree with Quran-Islam.org website that the concept of Hajj only during first 10 days of month of Dhul Hijji is from traditions.  The Quran does not uphold that.  So we can perform Hajj on all 4 months.  That much is in accordance with the Quran as confirmed in the Final Message.  But the question is which are those other 3 months as Sister Heba emphasized?  If we choose those additional 3 sacred or abstained months as Dhul Qadah, Muharram and Rajab .. then again we are going back to Hadith, aren't we?  Because this information comes from Hadith.  Unless that website has some logical analysis from the Quran as to which months are precisely included from the Quranic statement of Verse 2:197.  But I'm sure the Quran does not mention the names of those months.  The only month named in the Quran is Ramadan, that the Quran began being revealed in this month because Allah wants us to know about it.

The Quran refers to the cycle of time-period from the beginning of times, and thus the Quran does not mention the names of months because names of months have been different in different communities around the world at different times of history.  Not just that, but with the cycle of cultural innovation, those names also kept changing.

As for the precise reason for selecting specific months and why these 4 months were chosen as sacred which mainly denoted abstinence from violence, is not known either.  Possibly the purpose was to minimize the anxiety and destruction of war .. to give a break to the strife & skirmishes within a tribal community.  It maybe possible that the practice of refraining from wars on certain months existed in Arabia since very long, maybe it existed in some ways since the time of Prophet Abraham (pbuh).  But only Allah knows best.


Here is the above original post in this thread by me.


Recently Sister Heba and myself did some tireless research on the concept of "four sacred months."  As we all know it's true the names of the four "sacred" months is mentioned in the Hadith, yet viewing the four (sacred) months (or the four months of abstinence) as Rajab, Dhul Qadah, Dhul Hijjah and Muhurram doesn't mean that we are taking our information from the Hadith.

As we adjust our opinion on this aspect in regard to the season of Hajj, let us begin by quoting Verses 9:36 and 2:197. 

"Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him]."   9:36.

"Hajj is (during) well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein, there is (to be for him) no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj.   And whatever good you do - Allah knows it."  2:197.

Four sacred months are Rajab, Dhul-Qadah, Dhul Hijjah and Muharram.   These months are not named in the Quran.  However, we can be quite sure that the references in the above Verses are to these four months.  Obviously there wasn't much need to mention the names of these months in the Quran because it had been a practice in Arabia for a very long period, observing these four months to be "hurumun."  For that reason Allah has already mentioned those months as "well-known months" in original Arabic "ashhurun maʿlumatun."

This time the Hadith didn't randomly mention these four months, rather mentioned them in accordance to an old existing practice in history.  What the Hadith did concoct was the mistranslation of the word "hurumun" as 'sacred.'   For that reason, most English translators of the Quran also use the same term 'sacred.'   However, we are fortunate to have the original Quran which tells us that the actual word stated by The Almighty is "hurumun" which means abstaining or prohibiting.

The term hurumun which is translated as "are sacred" in V.9:36 is basically taken in the context of banning or prohibiting or abstaining.  It does not refer to spiritual practices nor sacred in the religious context.  It alludes to abstaining from or prohibiting or banning wars and skirmishes.  Fighting between tribes and clans were quite frequent in pre-Islamic Arabia.  It conveys the concept of promotion of peace, and thwarting the destruction and insecurity caused by wars and attacking wayfarers, breaking of peace treaties or any other form of communal violence.  In the Quran there are no religious connections with any of these four months.  The only month having religious significance is the month of Ramadan.  Ramadan can certainly be taken as the most favored month of the year as it is the month of the Noble Quran.  The sacred aspect of this month is based on spirituality, and it's taken for granted that any sincere believer will never initiate war in this blessed month unless in self defense if they are attacked first. 

In Verse 2:197, when Allah says Hajj to be in the "well-known months" ..  it would be reasonable to assume the reference is to the four months of Rajab, Dhul-Qadah, Dhul Hijjah and Muharrum.  War and violence being specifically prohibited in these four months, these months were also favorable and convenient for performing Hajj which required traveling long distances for many people.   We are sure that Allah mentions "months" in the plural and not the singular "month."  The singular 'month' is Arabic is شهر and its plural is أَشْهُرٌ, ashhurun as stated in the Verse 2:197.   Therefore the Noble Quran states that Hajj can be performed during those four months and not necessarily only during the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah.   That assertion is quite clear.

The idea of restricting Hajj only during the month of Dhul Hijjah, and that too only during the first 10 days of this month, coming from the Hadith institution explains why the Haj season is so overcrowded and difficult.  It keeps getting tougher as the world population increases.  At present there are approximately between 2 million and 2.5 million pilgrims going to Arabia for Hajj during the season.  Everyone who decides to perform Hajj must either rush to accommodate themselves during the short stretch of the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah or wait until the following year.  Therefore, the Hadith has again blatantly overridden the Quranic Law, replacing it with an idea of its own.  Instead of recklessly accepting such a flagrant violation by the Hadith, if our jurists had followed the Quran allowing Hajj to be performed during all 30 days of the four months of Rajab, Dhul Qadah, Dhul Hijjah and Muharrum, the crowd during every season and every stretch of performing Hajj would have been one-quarter of what we see during the current Hajj season which is only in the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah.


How did the performance of Hajj get restricted within the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah ?
 
This misinformation arises from the total misinterpretation of Verses 89:1-4 by the Hadith traditionalists.   We also had this discussion in our post Ten Nights, the Even and the Odd.   The following is more detailed.

The constant repetition of the Hadith about the merits of the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah is one of the aspects that has underscored the idea that Hajj must be performed only during this period.  Quote:   "There are no days greater in the sight of Allah and in which righteous deeds are more beloved to Him than these ten days .."   This is from the collection of Ahmad, but I'm quite sure it's also there in Bukhari.   Another Hadith assertion comes from its total misunderstanding and misinterpretation of Verses 89:1-4 of Surah Al-Fajr.   The Verse says "By the Dawn  And ten nights, And the Even and the Odd,  And the night when it departs,   ..  

The above quoted Verses of Surah Al-Fajr, which Hadith has misunderstood as referring to the first 10 nights of Dhul Hijjah, and some traditionalists think it's the last 10 days of Ramadan, actually have nothing to do with either Dhul Hijjah nor Ramadan.

It is an oath which The Almighty takes on fajr which is the start of each new day when a slight bluish streak of light appears in the dark sky (V.89:1).    The ten nights (V.89:2) imply each group of the ten nights among the thirty nights of the month.  The reason why the 30 days are mentioned into three groups of 10 nights is an allusion to the description of the changing forms of the moon.  During the first 10 nights the crescent moon begins by appearing like a thin curved streak.  Gradually it appears wider every night and by the 10th night it looks brighter in comparison.  During the start of the second group of 10 days the moon continues to look larger and brighter, and by the 14th night it's fully illuminated by the sun which we refer to as the "full moon," marvelously illuminating the dark night, Alhumdulilah.   After the 14th night the moon gradually starts to wan again, and the nights again begin to get darker.  Thus, when the following month begins with the first group of 10 days, the moon again appears like a thin crescent streak. 

Even and the odd (V.89:3) refer to the numbering of the days from one to thirty divided into three groups of ten nights each.  In every group of these ten nights and days, all even number of days of the month are preceded by odd numbers e.g.  the second day of the month (even number) preceded by the first day (odd number), the fourth day (even number) preceded by the third day (odd number) and so on.

Departing of the night (V.89:4) is of course very simple to understand.  The reference is, when dawn begins to arrive it ushers an end to the darkness that covered the atmosphere which slowly and steadily starts to brighten.

Finally, the question is, why is The Almighty taking this oath ?    As I mentioned earlier, the traditionalists presume it's about the first ten nights of Dhul Hijjah, and some presume the last ten nights of Ramadan and thus the concept that the revelation of the Noble Quran began on one of the "odd" ten nights of the month of Ramadan, whereas Allah Almighty gives us no reason for such a presumption.  He makes it clear that the revelation of the Quran began in one of the 30 nights of Ramadan;  but that day has not been disclosed to us.

The reason Allah Almighty takes this oath is based on the argument which the idolaters constantly had with the Prophet (pbuh) about the punishment in the Hereafter.   The idolaters did not believe in the Last Day nor the Final Judgement.   No matter how much the Prophet (pbuh) tried to convince them about the Truth, they would not accept it.   Therefore, Allah Almighty asserts and confirms this argument that the sinful ones and the disbelievers will surely be dealt with in the Hereafter. In this regard The Almighty takes an oath mentioning the marvels of the dawn, the changing appearances of the moon throughout the 30 days of each month and finally the departing of the dark night replaced by dawn again.   As Surah Al-Fajr continues, quote:

"There surely is an oath for thinking man."   89:5
"Do you not consider how your Rab dealt with (the tribe of) A'ad,"  89:6
"And with (the tribe of) Thamud, who clove the rocks in the valley;"   89:9
"And with Pharaoh, firm of might,"   89:10
"Who (all) were rebellious (to Allah) in these lands,"   89:11
"Therefore thy Lord poured on them the disaster of His punishment."   89:13



The Almighty categorically states in the above Verses that all wrong doers in the past were punished and their punishment in Hellfire will be still worse.   This will also be the fate of all disbelieving and sinful people of later times who will then regret, but that would be too little, too late.

This makes up the elucidation of the Verses 82:1-4 which is NOT about the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah nor the final ten days of Ramadan. 
 

(This post is also in the thread about procedure of Hajj in the Noble Quran but we decided to also post it separately as an independent post because this topic in connection with Hajj is very important)


Related posts:

- What does the Quran say about the procedure of Hajj ?
- Who was the first person who built the Kaa'ba ?
- Does the Quran mention about Umrah ?
-  Fasting on the day of Arafah
- Origin of the word 'Ramadan' and the four sacred' months

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Ruhi_Rose
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« Reply #1 on: July 16, 2021, 07:08:24 am »



Yes I saw it in the thread of Hajj post yesterday, and it's a very good idea to post this independently as well.  Info contained here is just to relevant, most Muslims don't even know.    This read is an evidence of the fact that Hadith doesn't only weave stories on matters not contained in the Quran, but it also changes matters that are fully elucidated in the Quran.
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« Reply #2 on: July 16, 2021, 07:14:05 am »




  .. This read is an evidence of the fact that Hadith doesn't only weave stories on matters not contained in the Quran, but it also changes matters that are fully elucidated in the Quran.

Yes exactly, Hadith has changed many things clearly asserted in the Quran. 

Btw, sister Ruhi, I often read you mention the "Zil Hajj."  Is that the same as Dhul Hijjah ?
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« Reply #3 on: July 16, 2021, 07:17:58 am »



Yeah brother it's the same   In Pakistan the month of Dhul Hijjah is often referred as Zil Hajj.   But I should mention it as Dhul Hijjah to avoid confusion.    As it is, hadith has created enough confusion.  I would never want to add to it. 
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« Reply #4 on: July 16, 2021, 07:20:41 am »

 

😊  no, there's no confusion.  It's quite obvious Zil Hajj means Dhul Hijjah.  I just wanted to confirm.  The 'dh' sound in Arabic is often pronounced as 'z' in some Muslim communities.
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« Reply #5 on: July 16, 2021, 07:22:55 am »



 
....  The 'dh' sound in Arabic is often pronounced as 'z' in some Muslim communities.

True, that's exactly it  ..
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« Reply #6 on: November 15, 2021, 10:24:07 pm »



Salam again here, dear folks!

Recently in some website, I cannot recall which one, they named the four sacred months as Zul-Hijjah, Muharram, Safar, and Rabi-ul-Awal. 

Here are the 12 Hijri lunar months in order of appearance:

1.  Muharram
2.  Safar
3.  Rabi' al-awwal
4.  Rabi' al-thani
5.  Jumada al-awwal
6.  Jumada al-thani
7.  Rajab
8.  Sha'aban
9.  Ramadan
10. Shawwal
11. Dhu al-Qi'dah
12. Dhu al-Hijjah

The ones in blue are commonly taken as the four sacred months apparently coming down from the oldest social practices, though the Noble Quran only mentions the total number of sacred months, that is 4, not the names of those months.   

Based on what tradition do some people take Safer as one of the sacred months or one of the months of Hajj?  Or, are we divided on picking the four sacred months?

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« Reply #7 on: November 15, 2021, 11:18:36 pm »




Walaikum As-Salam.




  ..  Or, are we divided on picking the four sacred months?



You got it right there, sis .....  😄     Unfortunately this is yet another aspect where we, our Muslim community, is divided.   Though the months you marked in blue are the conventional ones most commonly accepted, yet there is a unanimity problem among people on a wider level. 

The four months you quoted are the ones picked by Submission website of Rashid Khalifa.  Those guys presume that the sacred months must be continuous which according to them is based on Verse 9:37 of Surah At-Tawbah.  But if you read Verse 9:37  (quoted below from three different translators), it gives absolutely no reason to conclude that those 4 months are consecutive.  This Verse refers to the practice of the idolaters who, on a certain year, would declare a prohibited month as a regular month making fighting and other types of violence lawful for themselves. Then they would declare a regular month to be a prohibited for war to make up for the actual prohibited war which they disregarded earlier.


"Postponing sacred months is another act of disobedience by which those who disregard [God] are led astray: they will allow it one year and forbid it in another in order outwardly to conform with the number of God’s sacred months, but in doing so they permit what God has forbidden. Their evil deeds are made alluring to them: God does not guide those who disregard [Him]"  9:37 (translation Haleem).

"Postponement (of a sacred month) is only an excess of disbelief whereby those who disbelieve are misled; they allow it one year and forbid it (another) year, that they may make up the number of the months which Allah has hallowed, so that they allow that which Allah has forbidden. The evil of their deeds is made fair seeming unto them. Allah guides not the disbelieving folk."   9:37 (Pickthall translation).

"Indeed, the postponing [of restriction within sacred months] is an increase in disbelief by which those who have disbelieved are led [further] astray. They make it lawful one year and unlawful another year to correspond to the number made unlawful by Allah and [thus] make lawful what Allah has made unlawful. Made pleasing to them is the evil of their deeds; and Allah does not guide the disbelieving people."  9:37  (standard translation by sahih international).


As one can assess for themselves, Verse 9:37 gives no reason for the assumption that the four months got be continuous.

The standard ones are Rajab, Dhul Qadah, Dhul Hijjah and Muhurram which most circles accept, perhaps because these four months have been recognized for the longest stretch of time.

But unfortunately, some different circles of Muslims have different picks on the "sacred months."   

According to Sheikh Attiqur Saqr who is the former head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee, there are 3 months for Hajj which he names Shawwal, Dhul Qidah and Dhul Hijja. If Attiqur Saqr is referring to the sacred months (and obviously he should for Quranic evidence/reference) then he is contradicting or overriding Quranic information.  The Noble Quran clearly says that sacred months are four.  The Quran has not named these 4 months but has certainly confirmed the number of these (sacred) months which is four.

"Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him]."   9:36


In my opinion, Attiqur Saqr's fatwa is useless and cannot be accepted because it clearly clashes with Quranic information.  Saqr has also cited no evidence from the Quran as to why he thinks Hajj can be performed during 3 months instead of 4.  In fact he doesn't even refer to the 3 months he named as "sacred months" rather labels them as the 3 months of Hajj.  He has picked Shawwal as the first of the three months, which is the month of Eid-al-Fitr soon after Ramadan.   This is the first time I've known of anyone picking Shawwal as one of the months for Hajj.  However, as a Hadither, I'm surprised that he even acknowledged that Hajj can be performed in other months too in addition to Dhul Hijja.

Then I discovered that the approach of recognizing three months for Hajj is also also followed by other traditional circles.  For e.g.  Islamweb, a Qatari site, run by Al-Balagh Cultural Society says sacred months are four but Hajj months are three.  Quoting this source "The sacred months are four: Thul-Qi‘dah, Thul-Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab .... (or they could simply say Muharram, Rajab, Dhul Qadah and Dhul Hijjah to keep it in the calendar order). The months of Hajj, on the other hand, are three: Shawwal, Thul-Qi‘dah, and Thul-Hijjah. Two of the sacred months, which are Muharram and Rajab, have nothing to do with the months of Hajj.

But they haven't explained with any Quranic reference on what basis they presume Muharram and Rajab have nothing to do with Hajj.  Nor have they given any Quranic reference to prove why they have separated the 4 sacred months from the 3 months of Hajj.  You can visit the link and see for yourself that they have given no evidence from the Quran to support their theory. 

Apparently contents from extra-Quranic sources have given rise to these confusing differences.  It's very typical of humans running to traditional narrations for help which invariably gives rise to dozens of personal differences in opinion and none of their opinions logically tally with any Quranic principle or value.

I would say, just stick to the oldest recognized months taken as the 4 (sacred) months - Muharram, Rajab, Dhul Qidah and Dhul Hijjah.  These were obviously the  (four months when wars were forbidden in Arabia for centuries, and therefor, these are the months when it was safe to perform Hajj.  While Dhul-Qidah, Dhul Hijjah and Muharram are continuous, Rajab is not continuous with the rest of the three.  But that shouldn't matter as the Noble Quran does not confirm that all four months are continuous.

And only Allah knows best.

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« Reply #8 on: November 16, 2021, 11:17:16 pm »



I see, I now get it.  Human nature is so prone to polarity ..... even if it's not needed, they feel nice to get themselves divided.  Idiots.

Plenty of thanks Sister Heba.    Insh'Allah, will send this around.   My husband will surely be very interested to read it.

 
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